MASTER OF SCIENCE IN COMMUNITY ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT
Research project report
SOCIO-ECONOMICAL EMPOWERMENT FOR YOUTH
INFECTED & AFFECTED BY HIV/AIDS
A CASE STUDY CARRIED IN DODOMA MUNICIPALITY
NEEMA WELLU NSALLU
MSN.CED STUDENT CANDIDATE 2009)
The preparation of this report would have not been possible without the help and cooperation of my supervisor Dr. Sinda Hussein of the University of Dar-es-salaam. I would also like to extend my sincere acknowledgement to the Provincial Office of Anglican Church of Tanzania (ACT) for granting a study leave to enable me to carryout the study. I would also indebted the host NGO CMSR , the National Program Officer Mr Frank Kang’uli and the Youth officer Mrs Josephine Baraka who were worked together in this research, for their cooperation and last but not the least, youths of Mambo Poa Youth Resource centre in Dodoma. Lastly I would like to acknowledge the co-operation of Shidepha+ NGO of people living with AIDS for their consideration and support throughout this research.
This project work is a result of a survey, which was carried out in Dodoma town in partial fulfillment of the requirement for a Masters Degree studies
The purpose was to find out the social and economical impact of HIV/AIDS to the youths infected and affected in Dodoma Municipality. Due to high stigma and discrimination, absence of a cure, the devastating impact of the epidemic is incomprehensible.
The survey methods were employed in collecting information and gathering data from the Mambo Poa Youth Resource Center records as well those of Dodoma Municipal Development department, Dodoma Regional Hospital and VCT centers. This was done between November 2007 and June 2008.
The sample size and response rate; A sample of 74 people of the Dodoma municipality were randomly selected, interviewed, and responded the questionnaire distributed, the response rate was 74 among these 44 were females and 30 were males.
The findings were the 2007, Dodoma region, the same as other region has faced the HIV/AIDS challenges, around 9 of young women and around 7 young men interview were HIV positive. The highest prevalence of HIV among youth is ranging from 5% to 10%. The prevalence is higher among women; poverty significantly influences the spread of HIV/AIDS. Girls are particularly Vulnerable for both biological in an effort to meet their basic daily needs in all regional but in Dodoma the prevalence is highest for young girls. The level of education and unemployment, daily income were the factors compared with the spread of HIV and revealed that 89% of the infected were unemployed, low level of education and their daily income was less than 1000 Tshg..
With the co-operation with Cento Mondalita Sviluppo Reciproco Tanzania (CMSR-Tz), the project came to realize that there is reversible relationship between the unemployment and the spread of HIV among youths. The project conducted entrepreneurship trainings to enhance self employment opportunities to raise daily income of the target group.
This project intended to improve the lives of youth infected and affected with HIV/AIDS, to participate in development activities against stigma reduce income poverty, Also to provide sustainable social and economical interventions which will accommodate the most disadvantaged Youth including the victims of HIV/AIDS , The group is social and economical mostly disadvantaged due to stigmatization, unemployment, lack entrepreneurship skills and on how to secure loans from financial institution, private firm and donors for income generating activities as well as market to sell their products. Lack of unemployment has made the situation the worse and hence has contributed to poor health and susceptible to opportunistic diseases. The information and data collected during the participatory assessment, reveals that the extreme poverty and poor standard of lives, has contributed much in the erosion of the behaviors of youth, which in turn plays a major role in fuelling HIV/AIDS
The project aimed to mobilize the available local resources within the community and make use youth talents and potentials to initiate economic activities which are manageable and sustainable. Also to create employment among the youth infected with HIV/ AIDS through selling products in the markets. Youth empowerment included the intervention on entrepreneurship training, vocational and life skill trainings, capacity building on self employment and business skills, marketing and savings. The achievement of this project was assured by the cooperation from the community leaders and Dodoma Municipal Council and the host organization (Cento Mondalita Sviluppo Reciproco Tanzania (CMSR-Tz), Mambo poa youth resource center which are the main players of this project. Therefore, the main concern was to establish practical and appropriate training and counseling to youth within Dodoma Municipality, inclusive the HIV and AIDS infected youth, with an objective of preparing youths for self employment activities, to engage in production process for the community and their families.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
1.0 INTRODUCTION: Error! Bookmark not defined.
2.0 PARTICIPATORY ASSESSMENT.. 13
2.1 General assessment tools and methodologies. 22
3.0 COMMUNITY PROFILE.. 13
3,1 Why community profile. 13
3.2. Country Profile. 14
3.3. Dodoma regional profile. 14
3.4. Dodoma Municipal Profile. 16
3.5 Ward profile. 17
3.6. Location and topography. 17
3.7. Population and demography. 17
3.9. Administrative Division. 18
2.10. Ethnic group and language. 19
3.10 Social and economic services. 20
3.11. The aim of participatory assessment 21
3.12. Community current situation. 30
3.13. Research Design. 23
3.14. Methodologies and tools used. 23
3.15. Contents of Questionnaires and analysis. 25
3.16. Sampling Methods and size. 27
4.0. COMMUNITY NEED ASSESSMENT.. 29
4.1. Why community assessment 30
4.2. The research Design. 31
4.3. Methods and tools. 31
4.5. Sampling Methods and sample size. 31
4. 6. COMMUNITY ASSESSMENT FINDINGS. 32
4.7. COMMUNITY STRESS. 33
4.8. SOURCES OF STRESSS. 34
4.9. COMMUNITY ASSESTS. 35
5.0. ECONOMIC ASSESSMENT.. 37
5.1. Why economic participatory assessment 37
5.2. The research Design. 37
5.3. Methods and tools. 38
5.4. Sampling methods and size. 38
5.6. ECONOMIC FINDINGS. 39
5.9. ECONOMIC ASSETS. 41
6.0. ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT.. 42
6.1. Why environmental assessment 42
6.3. Research Design. 43
6.4. Methods and tools. 43
6.5. Sampling methods and sample size. 44
6.6. ENVIRONMENTAL FINDING.. 45
6.7. ENVIRONMENTAL STRESS. 45
Un-clean environment and poor sewage system.. 45
6.8. SOURCE OF ENVIRONMENTAL STRESS. 46
6.9. ENVIRONMENTAL ASSETS. 46
7.0. HEALTH ASSESSMENT.. 47
7.1. Why health assessment 47
7.2. Research Design. 47
7.3. Methods and tools used. 48
7.5. HEALTH ASSESSMENT FINDINGS. 50
7.6. HEALTH STRESSS. 50
7.7. HEALTH ASSETS. 51
8.0. The most Community need. 53
9.0. LITERATURE REVIEW... 55
9.2 History of HIV/AIDS. 55
9.3 Epidemiology of HIV and AIDS. 56
9.6. Epidemic Health Impact 56
9.7. Epidemic Economic Impact 57
9.8. Epidemic Social impact 58
9.11 The effect of epidemic to social and economic development 60
9.12 Epidemic Social impact 61
9.13 Current youth employment situation. 62
10.3 Possible means to overcome the existing problems is Youth Empowerment. 65
11.0. NATIONAL YOUTH POLIDY REVIEW... 66
15.1 The study area (Project scope) 87
15.2 The Host Organization. 87
15.3 The significance of this study. 88
16.0 IMPLEMENTATION PLAN.. 89
17.0. MONITPRING AND EVALUATION PLAN.. 90
18.0 PROJECT SUSTAINABILITY PLAN.. 92
18.1 Institutional Sustainability. 92
18.2 Financial sustainability. 93
18.3 Political sustainability. 94
19.0 CONCLUSION.. 94
Appendix 2. 104
CED PROJECT LOGICAL FRAMEWORK APPROACH.. 104
LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS
CMSR-Tz Cento Mondalita Sviluppo Reciproco Tanzania
HIV Human Immune Deficiency Virus
AIDS Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome
STIs Sexual Transmitted Infections
NACP National AIDS Control Program
TACAIDS Tanzania Commission for AIDS
USAID United States Agency International Development
UPE Universal Primary Education
CBO Community Based Organizations
GDP Gross Domestic Products
ICRIST International Crop Research Institute for Semi- arid Tropic
QDS Quality Declared Seed
NGOs Non- Governmental Organizations
DAPACA Dodoma AIDS Network Association
DCT Diocese of Central Tanganyika
CED Community Economic Development
RNA Ribonucleic Acid
NACP National AIDS Control Program
VETA Vocational Training Institutions
YEG Youth Economic Groups
CAN Community Need Assessment
ICT Information and Communication Technologies
DCT Diocese of Central Tanganyika
CMSR Tz Italic Abbreviations for NGO
OVC Orphans and Vulnerable Children
PRA Participatory Rural Assessment
PIM Participatory Impact Monitoring
FGD Focus Group Discussion
CDA Capital development Authority
VTC Voluntary Testing and Counseling
AMREF African Medical Research Fund
WEO Ward Executive Officer
IGA Income Generating Activities
SACCOS Saving and Credit Cooperative organizations
CTC Care and Treatment Centers
LIST OF TABLES
Dodoma District Coverage area 1
Dodoma District Wards and Villages 2
Regional and District Population 3
Population by District by Sex for year 2001 4
Number of Wards and Villages 5
Income Generating Activities in Dodoma 6
Pair-wise ranking 7
LIST OF APPENDIX
Problem Tree Analysis 1
Logical frame work 2
Implementation Table 3
Gant Chart 4
Monitoring and Evaluation Plan 5
This chapter is about the Participatory Need Assessment findings conducted in Dodoma Municipality with co-operation with Mambo Poa Youth Resource Center (CBO) from November 2007 to January 2008.The assessment was conducted as the requirement of Masters Degree of Science in Community Economic Development Program. (2007- 2009) It includes the community profile, community need assessment and the research methodology used in assessment. Findings/results of assessment were analyzed in order to identify the problems faced in the community.
1.1 COMMUNITY PROFILE
(a) Why community profile
The community profile was conducted to get information about community which the CED project research will be carried out. On tracing out these information the CED student consulted semi- structure dialogue with Governmental officials in Regional, District and Municipal council, Also she visited the Regional Government Hospital and Dodoma Municipal Council development department, PLWAS group to obtain various data including HIV/AIDS Statistics and activities conducted from the National level the grassroots, which was the center of interest. The data collected were on social services, environmental and economic situation, administration, population, demographics data and climatic condition. Through this pyramid of thought, the CED student was able to collect information about the involvement of Vulnerable and marginalized people in Social – economic interventions as one of the strategies toward poverty eradication national goal.
(b) Country Profile
Tanzania covers area of 945,090 Square Kilometers, with the population 34,569,232 of which 51% are women and 49 % under five 56 of total % of the total population. The annual rate is 2.8. There are approximately of 120 ethnic groups within Tanzania. The economic situation is about 4% of Tanzania’s is under cultivation, agriculture dominates the Tanzania economy, employing 80% of the population and accounting for 85% of all exports. Economic liberalization has led to increase private investment; however corruption, management, and regional problems continue to hamper the economy. On the other side of the coil the infectious Diseases such as Malaria, Tuberculosis and HIV/AIDS has been the threat against Tanzania Economy growth. However the more
Disadvantaged are marginalized people such as women, youths and children.
(c) Dodoma regional profile
Dodoma Region lies at 40 to 0 latitude South and 35 – 37 longitude east. Dodoma region has four rural districts and two urban Districts, namely Chamwino and Bahi and four other three districts Kondoa, Mpwapwa, Kondoa. The region is the 12th largest in the country and covers an area of 41.310 sq km equivalent to 5% of the total of Tanzania mainland.
The five districts are sub divided into 26 Divisions, 145 wards and 465 registered villages as shown in Table below.
Based on the group rate of 2.4% and taking 1988 as a base year; the current (2002) Regional population is estimated of 1,735,000.
(e) Dodoma Municipal Profile
Community profile of Dodoma municipal information was obtained from Dodoma Municipal council. The methods used were semi- structured dialogue with heads of departments (Health, education, agriculture and planning) and other documents were consulted from the council. The purpose was to find the most current situation on various issues ranging from administration, demographic, population climate, and access to social services like water, education and health care and economic current situation.
(e) Ward profile
The selected CBO is located at Mji- Mpya, Majengo ward, within the Dodoma Town whereby about 2000 people live in this area, the regional market is also found in this place, so it is very overcrowded ward. Most of people are business men dealing with trades such as crops, timber, shops, tailoring mates, building equipment shops e.t.c, it is high density streets. Majengo ward like other wards is operating under the Local Government District Council, WEO (Ward executive officer) and other leaders are in place. The business people mostly bought their goods from villagers who brought their crops from farms. Such as Cereals, tomatoes, potatoes, fruits e.t.c. Some of their goods are brought from the neighbor regions.
Majengo,mji mpya street
(e) Location and topography
Dodoma Municipality is located centrally in the region encircled by Chamwino and Bahi District Council, lying between Latitudes 35° and 37° south and Longitudes 32° and 35° east. It is situated 486 Km. West of Dar-es-Salaam, commercial and industrial city and 441 Km. South of Arusha, the leading National tourist centre. The Municipality stands on a broad upland plateau with altitude ranging between 600 and 1000 meters above sea level. It is encircled by Dodoma rural district.
(e) Population and demography
The area of Dodoma Municipality is 2,769 square kilometers.. It is the smallest Council in Dodoma Region thus covering only 6.3% of the total area of the Dodoma region. The district is administered by a District Commissioner the same as district and has a local government. Total of 324,347 of people live in Dodoma, with the sex composition of 157,466 males and 166,878 females or 48.5% males and 51.5% of female The results recorded 74,914 Households with an average Household size of 4.3. According to 1988 census, 58.9% of the total district population lived in rural areas leaving 41.1% in the urban areas. While the Demographic indicator in 2003 shows that a total fertility rate estimated 6 Children per woman, a general mortality rate of 190-200/ per 100,000 populations and an infant mortality rate of 191 deaths per 100,000 live births. Death among children less than five years of age is (191/1000).
(f) Climatic condition
Dodoma depends on minimal rainfall for its agriculture; obtain the average of 570 mm and 86%, between Dec and April. Unreliable rainfall and so imposed a pattern of traditional agriculture. The same as other arid area, Dodoma Municipal atmospheric condition accompanied with high Transpiration and evaporation, low humidity holding moisture capacity and windy in June- August. The temperature is average of max 31 and 18 min degree centigrade. Vegetation is bushy plantation and widespread of natural plants. Dodoma Municipal has savanna type of climate characterized by long dry season, last between late of April and early of December.
(g) Administrative Division
Dodoma Municipality is among five administrative districts that make up the Dodoma region. Administratively have 4 divisions, 30 wards (17 urban and 13 rural), 40 villages and 249 hamlets. It is also divided into two rural and urban areas. The following table is the summarized divisions, number of wards and villages in the Municipality.
(h) Ethnic group and language
The Dodoma Municipality is inhabited with Bantu speaking people. Gogo is the predominant ethnic group/tribe. There are mixed tribes in the town centre. The Gogo are both farmers and pastoralists and settled people. In Dodoma municipality gender influence the importance of child and maternal health decisions. However men are the only ones who have the power of decision in the family. The following are problems facing gender in the District women being most vulnerable to these problems. Female genital mutilation, early marriages to girls, inheritance of widows and exchange of wives, other habits are alcoholism most common to men and late attendances of pregnant mothers to clinics and not using family planning methods. Lastly there is inadequate communication and joint decision on health issues in family level the situation which lead to secrecy and shame in case of HIV/AIDS and STI infections.
Gogo tribal dance
(i) Social and economic services
The district economy is very much influenced and affected by the harsh and unreliable climatic conditions of the district and also poor traditional crop and animal husbandry. There are few industries operating in the municipal. These are ceramic, meat, grape processing, and oil pressing plants. The economy of the District depends largely on the agriculture and livestock. Agriculture is the main stay of the District economy, about 75% of the District income is derived from agriculture both from food and cash crops production. The rest is derived from public and private sectors, business and the informal sectors.
Dodoma Municipal Council like other councils in the Country has a major role of providing education including Primary and also post primary level schooling. The overall existing in the primary education system in the country is to achieve Universal Primary Education (UPE) generally 98%% enrollment of children is of actual age (7-13 years). The focus of education is to provide practical and relevant education through self- reliance which in the long run will influence economic growth and poverty reduction.
Apart from public initiatives, the private sector has also played its role in the provision of health services, in order to improve the well being of the people with focus on the most at risk and to ensure that the health services are more responsive in the needs of the entire population
Various NGO’s and donors operating in the Dodoma Municipality in collaboration with the Dodoma Municipal council dealing with Agriculture and livestock, legal rights
HIV/AIDS and other health services. Although the district is best served in terms of health facilities in the region due to being both the regional and national capital district, yet things are not that much good. Both public and private initiatives over the years have enabled the provision of health services in Municipality to be adequate. The aspects were broadly assessed during the participatory assessment
1.2 PARTICIPATORY ASSESSMENT
(a) Why participatory assessment
Participatory assessment for situation analysis was aimed to explore issues/needs and identify community gaps. It was conducted to build partnership with the target population in specific age group and backgrounds, by promoting meaningful participatory through structure dialogue, including holding separate discussion with the target population, in order to gather information on the specific problem, underlying causes to understand their capacities and hear their proposed solutions.
The purpose was to find the most current situation on community issues, through the participatory approach where people themselves (Community members) lead through the structure dialogue to identify their stress, sources of the stress and available assets and opportunities which can be used to solve their problems.
(b) Community Need Assessment (CNA)
The community assessment is the exercise of asking the community members what they see as the most need of the group or community members; the results of the assessment guided the future actions i.e. thus, the most rated need was regarded as the community problem and was addressed.
CNA identified the gaps and challenges which face the Community Based Organizations (CBOs) dealing with HIV and AIDS management in Dodoma Municipality, and was used to identify the opportunities, local available resources which can used to improve the Health and lives of infected and affected people, which was pointed as the most disadvantaged and marginalized community groups (Women, Children and Youth) were given priority. Other information gathered were current situation of the most vulnerable groups to HIV and AIDS infection and on Government and NGOs youth interventions.
Focus group discussion
Most of information collected through CNA was qualitative in depth and action oriented using a range of methods and tools, as it proposed by CED program, these were the participatory techniques such as Focus Group Discussion (FGD), in personal interview, Questionnaires and , participatory methods adopted were the transect walk, observation and Documentary review.
1.2.1 COMMUNITY ASSESSMENT
Community assessment was conducted in Dodoma Municipality at Mji Mpya ward (Mambo Poa Youth Resource Center) where total of 123 people attended, with the composition of 78 women and 45 were men people attended.
(a) Community current situation
The living standard of Dodoma Municipally people is less than 1 USD (District Council source), most of people are poor, large number of baggers on street, and jobless. Many youth involved themselves in a cheap casual labor at Jamuhuri stadium, at market place and bus stand. Generally most of the community members are very poor- social- economical condition, the main income is through entrepreneurship which provide very minimal income activities The wage employment is very limited. The life is worse to the people living with HIV/AIDS especially unemployed youth and women. The HIV/ AIDS epidemic has associated with high stigma and discrimination from the family level to the community level, this has excluded youth infected and affected from development activities, also they lack the capability to work, no capitals for Income Generating Activities and entrepreneurs’ youth have no market to sell their goods. Therefore they face health, social and economical problems. The HIV infected encouraged to join youth economic group, Mambo Poa youth resource Center to live positively against stigma and discrimination, they go for mutual support but are still dependence and are jobless.
The situation facilitated the CED student to conduct Community Participatory Assessment in order to explore the most need for intervention.
(b) Research methodologies
Several methods were adopted to collect information from community groups, which were analyzed and presented The initial stage of the research was to assess the effectiveness of the community on social, economical and environmental activities, the information were used to identify cause and effects on the community issues and hence to come up with the community most common need which was used to develop the implementation, monitoring and evaluation plan.
(i) Research Design/ Approaches and Methods
The Participatory Research design was adopted by a researcher to conduct a systematic study on Youth social economic activities within Dodoma municipality, making use of survey methods the community members came up with the most community need for the project intervention. The exercise was successful through participatory approaches and methods, mentioned few were transect walk, and Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) and documentary review.
Based on the participatory research design, used during the community assessment, both qualitative and quantitative data were collected on general set-up of the community. In these aspects, community decision making, education, community health, youth and women participation in Income Generating Activities (IGA), volunteerism spirit in community development activities e.t.c In this regard the sample of 74 members of community including 40 women and 35 men among them 45 were youths and 30 were adults. The findings were generalized from this sample.
(ii) Research methodologies
The transect walk was made by a researcher and Mambo Poa youth resource leaders to the Mackay Health centers and Dodoma Government Regional Hospital, AMREF Voluntary Counseling and Testing (VCT), 4 Orphans families and Shidepha+ NGO of People Living with HIV/AIDS (PLHAs) and their families to observe really situation of their lives. (Houses and other socio-economical needs)
Record and documentary Review, It was a marvelous source of information, especially on youth intervention and HIV/AIDS descending information from the National level to the grassroots. The method was used to get the background of different issues on economical, environmental, and social (health and education) kept records. The method enriched this assessment with the relevant theoretical information on socio- economical status of youth, Women Income Generating Activities(IGA), poverty status, illiteracy, local government initiatives for supporting youth and women IGAs in formal and informal sectors etc Source of information are as listed in the references.
This method was used to collect secondary data from the host NGO (CMSR) Mambo Poa Youth Resource Center records and the booklets and articles written on HIV/AIDS epidemic in Country-wide, Regional, District Statistics and other literatures.
Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) was used as PUA. Some of the PRA methods were adopted to explore and priotize the needs i.e. Resource mapping, Visioning matrix and Pair wise ranking. The methods were used to generate and analyze the information collected throughout the CAN. The community members came-up with suggestion aimed to improve the situation of their lives. From there onward this research was linked direct to development activities, aimed to empower members of local community, the poor and illiterate based on the priority of the infected and affected youth.
(iii) Sampling methods and size.
Simple random sampling; Interviewing all members of the community was not possible; hence the sampling method was used. Out of 234 community members attended in community assessment 74 people were selected to participate in assessment. The sampling was randomly but based on sex (female and male) and age. All the targeted community members had equal chance to be selected as sample, regardless their education background, different income, and different occupation. The selection was randomly to avoid biasness.
Stratified random sampling; The method was applied in order to obtain data from different groups of community members from different areas of community, the strata based on age, sex, HIV status, hence the simple random sample was used to select 45 representative of youths of 15-25 age, 29 adults women and men. The representatives of community groups were People Living with HIV/AIDS, NGOs leaders found within Municipality and Mambo Poa youths, CBO workers, NGOs leaders and other Ward leaders were involved in Focus Group discussion. The strata based on sex and age (10-15), (16-20), (21-25), (26-30) above 30
Sample size; Total of 74 people was involved in this participatory assessment. Set of questionnaires were developed and distributed randomly to the focus group, 74 questionnaires were collected 44 of respondent were female while 30 were male in age of 15-45 years age group. Due to small sized sample the analysis of data required the statistical references. These methods focused on extrapolating findings from smaller studied units to larger ones, and so enabled generalizations.
(iv) Tools/ Instruments used for data collection
The technique was used to assess the environmental set-up and the health Syndromic outlook. The observation as the primary tool of scientific enquiry, it was mainly used to collect information of the general environments on natural resources, household situation and availability of other public social services. The tool enriched this report assessment and fostered the decisions for further study. All the observed information were recorded and discussed again in focus group for in depth in-sight.
Personal interview was used to obtain the Bio- information background of Youth affected and infected with HIV/AIDS in Dodoma Municipality and priority needs that required immediate attention. Mambo Poa youth aged between 15-25 years old, Orphans, vulnerable youth, PLWHAs. The interview conducted was face to face interaction between the Interviewer and interviewee, generally the conversation was part of supportive counseling, and the check list was used to guide the conversation in order to get the desired information. The information gathered were tested their validity and reliability and recorded for analysis.
Focus Group Discussion (FGD); The technique was applied to collect qualitative data in order to obtain in depth the community concerns, concepts, perceptions and ideas of a group selected to represent the community. FGD was conducted by selected community leader, NGO leaders, and CBO working staff, representatives of PLHAS; vulnerable youth and Dodoma AIDS cluster (DAPACA).The check list was used to guide discussion in order to collect intended answers.
The focus group discussion was essentially used to support questionnaires and to get more clarification on issues which were stated in the questionnaires. The focus group discussion was aimed to conduct as sort of confirmatory and rationalization of other assessment methods used in order to get more insights
Questionnaires; A set of 10 questions for CAN were developed, with the composition of all intended information a researcher desired to collect from the field of study. The structured questionnaires with open and closed were used to collect qualitative and qualitative data from survey groups. Through descriptive questionnaires the more details were collected to support the qualitative part.
The questionnaires also intended to aid for documentation purpose as the base-line of survey. So the criterion of selection of the respondents was set in order to obtain comprehensive ideas. The composition of respondents was the community members, youths, women, PLWHAs, health, education, environmental professionals and local government community leaders.
Contents of Questionnaires
40 questionnaires developed, 75 copies were distributed and colleted for analysis. The questions were of 4 different sections, 1st section comprised the community assessment questions, 2nd section comprised the economic assessment questions, 3rd section comprised the environmental assessment questions and the 4th section comprised the Health assessment questions. So the contents of questionnaires were different depending on the information required. The below is the discussion of main areas of questions based on the specific area of assessment.
(v) Main areas of questions
1st Section of the questionnaires consisted a set of 10 questions on community assessment, where by the sequence of questions were tracing out the level of involvement of community members in decision making, volunteerism spirit, availability of social services (Infrastructure, electricity, water, housing) family conflicts communication, culture and traditions and its effect to the community. A respondent were supposed to answer all 10 questions.
There were two types of response expected from the respondents, for the close-question yes/no answers which they was supposed to choice from the multiple choice questions. While for the open questions the respondents were required to give explanation to enrich the information required
(vi) COMMUNITY FINDINGS/RESULTS
The community members were well mobilize by Mambo Poa youth to attend the community meeting for assessment, they had taken the process seriously, The Nyuki Theater art/ culture group performed the drum-bit dance which sensitized many people to join the community meeting, total 245 people attended at Mambo Poa youth Resource center for community assessment. The findings presented in form of community stress and sources of stress and Community assets.
Community sensitization meeting
(a) COMMUNITY STRESS
Inadequate and poor housing status; most of people rent the houses for 15,000 to 20,000 for a room per month. Youth and jobless people fail to rent the houses and so this increases the number of homeless people sleeping on streets. The community is a poor place to rare the children due to high density of population in houses.
HIV/AIDS/STI; killer diseases has been the threat to the man power and brought socio –economical effects to the community. Its effect is from family level and has consumed time of women to care for the sick, instead of productive activities. It has affected most women as the family care givers and youth who left school to care for their sick parents.
Declining of Volunteerism spirit, people are no longer interested with voluntary works, due to city set-up people want allowances, or any wages to cater there human needs such as food, water, health services etc.
Inadequate Water supply is another community problem, especially during a long dry season of arid areas such as Dodoma, the women use a lot of time fetching water for domestic use, this also have contributed to the water-bone diseases such as typhoid, diahorrea, and outbreak disease such as cholera.
Poor sewage system and scattered, papers including plastic bags are in the streets, city council employees are not enough to clean 123 hamlets . Bad manners of arrogant people through the rubbish everywhere
Unemployment problem has contributed to increased street children and jobless youths as well as street baggers. Self employment has been difficult due lack of entrepreneurship skills and inadequate of training, No training manual for all levels of people e.g. Youths Poor health status, Most of people they struggle to get their daily meals they eat once or just twice a day, this lead to malnourished children as well as adults. The majority community members their standard of lives become worse a day after a day. (Based on respondents of Questionnaire) 58% of people receive two meals per day, 30% receive three meals and the rest 12% eats ones or going to bed hungry. (Human needs are unfulfilled)
Lack of capitals for micro- business, not all people has able to access loans from the financial facilities due to lack of qualifications required. The most disadvantaged groups to access loans are the Youth, women and people with chronic diseases such as HIV/AIDS
(b) SOURCES OF STRESS
Poverty or low income is the sources of many community stresses, poor and inadequate houses, lack of capitals for micro-business. Ignorance, due to lack of education has played part in poor health status and accelerates of poor culture and customs; repeatedly training and community interventions will slowly change the behavior and traditions.
Poor governance due to corruption and lack of accountability and transparent has been the source of declination of Volunteerism spirit. People would like to see the results of their contribution, and feedback.
Illiteracy has contributed to the unemployment stress, most of women and youth lack skills of new technology, laziness and lack of job opportunities common in urban areas.
Cultural and Traditions, most of Cultural discriminate the women and children, increase the stigma and discrimination to HIV/AIDS infected people, such as widow inheritance, female circumcision and early marriages for girls.
Poor planning for human settlement has lead to poor sewage system and overcrowded houses which is commonly found in old and developing cities.
(c) COMMUNITY ASSETS
Social services The community is the located within town set-up where all social services are available there is spots ground (Jamhuri Stadium) at Mji –Mpya, Mambo Poa youth resource center, with Voluntary and Testing center, The distance to Government Regional Hospital is just a walking distance, shops and banks.
Water and sanitation sector; The city population served with clean and safe water has risen from 1,199,390 (72.05) to 1,270,353 (75.3). The Government with collaboration with other donors has embarked on an intensive programme of rehabilitating. Water scheme. Sales also have risen from 25,000,000 to 55,000,000 per month. Current urban population is saved with clean and safe water
Electricity and other infrastructure; Electricity is available throughout. There are good roads; Dodoma is well served by inter-regional transport links with trunk roads passing East-West (East to Dar-es-Salaam and West to Mwanza). Inter-regional transport is also the transport that links with railways from east and West. There is an airport in Dodoma town which can accommodate a medium jet aircraft and government planes. Communication facilities include; telephone lines, faxes and e-mails. The community benefits from these services.
Schools and Education institutions; The community children have opportunity to join the schools around and benefit for education. Dodoma Municipality has 91 public primary schools and non government schools. Enrolment in public Schools for 2007 is 63,441 pupils, 31,524 are boys and 31,524 are girls. In these primary schools there are pre primary schools with 3418 children (1649 boys and 1769 girls). There are 868 permanent classrooms, 160 teachers.
Training Youth in and out school on Reproductive Health and life skills
Banking and Finance
The community has an opportunity to benefit from financial bodies around. Dodoma municipality is served by several banks namely: National Microfinance bank with two branches, National Bank of commerce, CRDB, Postal and Barclays bank each with one branch. Dodoma municipality has 8 saving and Credit Cooperative Societies providing financial services. There are also private companies like BLUE, TUNAKOPESHA, FINCA, SEDA and PRIDE Tanzania.
(vii) DATA ANALYSIS AND TECHNIQUES USED
Descriptive analysis, spreadsheet tabulation and SPSS were used to present the findings and data analysis
The table shows that the most of the community members have self employment or unemployed out of formal sectors, 50% are women and 40% are male were unemployed while only 10% were employed.
The table shows that in the community most of the youth are unmarried 75.7%, staying with their parents or guardians, the study shows that in most cases when youth with low level of education (67% are standard seven levers), so there is a crucial need to intervene unemployed youth and 50% have never attended any HIV /AIDS seminar. This increases the vulnerability of youth to HIV infection. Women and girls have more limited access to HIV/AIDS related information, prevention, treatment, care, support commodities, services than men and boys. 4% among 45 youth interviewed are infected with HIV and due to high stigma they face difficult to be in the respective families and community.
60% of the respondents were youth of age of 21-30, all were not employed in any of the formal sector. They live with their families i.e. parents or relatives, being dependants expose them to economical crisis, such as lack of human daily needs including food, shelter. They struggle to get their daily needs for survival.
The above table shows that 44.3% of the respondents were self employed that reveal the situation on employment challenges especially among the youth, and the need to focus on self-employment which absorb many People. The government needs to create conducive environment for expansion of informal sector and ensure availability of financial services and market for products produced. Youth networking in income groups is essential aspect in improving standard of living of youth and reduces income poverty among them.
HIV awareness training, RHE and entrepreneurship skills
Table 6 reveals that about 47.1% of youth interviewed have never attended any HIV/AIDS awareness training, and lack entrepreneurship skills and Reproductive Health education including life skills, Lack of such important education has increased the vulnerability to HIV infection and facilitated the low standard of lives among youth, more worse among youth infected with HIV/AIDS who stay with their relative; or parents . Lack of fulfillment of their basic need can drive them to other alternatives and fall in the other immoral behaviors which spread HIV to other non infected people.
Overcrowded houses and children raising
This table reveals that in the family with children ranging 5-6, which in this case were 41.4%, there is possibility of having social problems due to general standard of life and increasing cost of living. When the family responsibility increase and there is situation of poverty most of youth who are idle can engage in other social ills such as commercial sex, drug abuse, alcoholism, theft.
Many youth interviewed revealed 55.7% were between the ages of 16-20. This is school age whereby many youth has just completed their standard seven and if they were not selected for further education, there is possibility to engage in immoral habits such as commercial sex and drug abuse and other social ills in the community. Community leaders have to be creative to initiate community program to capture the development of youth within this age through income generating activities to improve their live and their families.
95.7% of respondents they are aware that there are other youth were unemployed the extent of this problem is rampant especially in this community .the observation shows increasing number of jobless corner youth. The situation is alerting and requires the government and other development partners to intervene and came up with strategies and program to combat this situation. Community support is also important in identifying the areas for self employment, conduct training to youth on entrepreneurship skills to facilitate self employment and change the attitude that the formal employment is the only means of income.
The community members are aware with high stigma and discrimination to People Living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHAs) from family to community level, is aware of this problem, 84.3% of respondents need interventions to be carried out in this community to overcome Stigma and discrimination instead should care and support the infected and affected people including orphans and youth. The mult-effect of this behavior not only cause uncertainty among the community members but also hinders further development of individuals and community as a whole. Awareness creation through community education will reduce or eliminate stigma and the community will support PLWHAs and orphans. Mambo Poa youth theater group educate the community through drama on HIV/AIDS and stigma.
The above table show the CMSR initiatives on addressing the unemployment problems among youth, making use of talented youth to perform road shows, theater art group perform drama in events and in public meetings Table 10 reveals that 78.6% of respondents appreciated the efforts being done by the CMSR on HIV/AIDS awareness creation, RHE trainings to youth in and out of school. They are willing to collaborate with development partners to initiate program which can help youth in this community to engage in economic activities. Community leader commitments are required in addressing volunteerism sprit among the people especially youth so that they can contribute to community development.
The above table reveals that although there is a community effort on dealing with unemployment problem but it is not enough, 60.0% shows their concern the Government should increase their efforts to solve unemployment problem among the youth. Use of existing opportunities in the community such as talented youth in drama and theatre and traditional chair making can create employment, The government should encourage youth who have commitment to study by giving opportunities in Government institutions for youth who have no fees to school free of charge.
The above table reveals that most of the existing efforts are done by the community members, 35.7% responded in this question admitted that. There is a need of more research and exposure to other development partners to intervene and write various proposals for more support and collaboration e.g. the international NGOs
There was a consistency of data and finding, some method were repeated to get more consistence of information collected.
The data collected and findings were accurate because I a CED Project Student I did my self and collect all primary data from the field, conducting in-personal interview, and myself I collected of questionnaires for analysis.
1.2.2 ECONOMIC ASSESSMENT
(a) Why economic participatory assessment
The economic assessment was conducted to access the community from the economic point of view. In this area of intervention economic stress and sources were explored, and the community members were able to identify the current economic issues and determine the potentials and opportunities which could be used to face the economical challenges. This assessment was the center of interest of the community because most of Majengo ward people are business men. Among the economic activities assessed were macro and micro-enterprises, small enterprises, small scale agriculture and other business.
Market place Majengo Dodoma municipal
(i) The research Design.
A research design for economic assessment was the participatory Research design so several participatory approaches or methodologies were used in order to get overview on what has to be done in the target community. The economic assessment was designed to collect both qualitative and quantitative data on the aspect of economic activities undertaken in this community. The major aspects researched on based on the sources of Income and economic activities undertaken, the entrepreneurship skills among the community members in running their business, cash flows, general community standard of living in terms of Income accrued for their living. A sample of 74 community members which include 44 men and 30 women among them 45 youth were used. In analyzing the data specific programme for Social Scientific (SPSS) will be applied.
(iii) Research Techniques/ tools
In Economic assessment researcher applied participatory methods, which include Questionnaire, which was distributed to sample community members and later collected for analysis. The questionnaire intended to inquire issues on the economic opportunities available in the community, income accrued and type of economic activities undertaken.
Primary data collected through Focus Group Discussion (FGD), Interviews, and Observations. FGD was conducted using the checklist questions and a member of the community has an opportunity to respond the questions and elaborate some issues which researcher needs more clarifications. However the FGD technique was crucial method to collect in depth information on economic status concerning financial services available and access of loans to community members. Availability of market to the products produced and circulation of money in the community and to trace the opportunity for community economic development.
The research reveals what is not working well, which is the community stress, sources of this stress which keeps these things from working well, and the community assets identified and are existing locally that will alleviate community stress or address the cause of the problem.
The structured questionnaires were developed by the researcher and distributed to the economists, local government leaders, NGOs leaders, community representatives including business men, (Both women and me) The questionnaires were flexible enough which provided both open questions and closed questions, to provide an opportunity of explanation
(ii) Research methods
Based on research design the strong desire was to discover the main economic issues in this community. The methods adopted in this research design were the survey concerning literatures, Library and field study PRA methods for resources mapping, and cooperative methods
Resource mapping was one of key PRA methodology used as a visual representative of an area showing the various resources within the community. The representatives of the community were assigned to show on map the resources such as land, forest, water sources, recreation area, socio-economic infrastructure, including roads, clinics, and schools. During the discussion of they pointed the available resources, constraints and discussed on how to use the available resources for development.
Library review/ documentary review
Secondary data was collected from library, the information to obtain the regional Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and per capita income. The Dodoma regional average GDP; are at current prices; the researcher made use of such data together with primary data for analysis
Document review was used to have a literature review on various economic issues on how to attain economic development, availability of financial e.g. SACOOS local financial institutions which provide services to the community. For example from documentary review the researcher realized that the existing local financial institution do not provide loans to PLWHAs due to their health status.
The method was used to explore the progressive initiatives undertaken by the Government and other NGOs to raise the income of the community and the GDP and per capita income
Comparison method, the method was used to decide the economic situation of Majengo ward as well as Dodoma municipal dwellers that it is almost poor. The comparison was made between the municipal situated in big five regions, Mbeya, Iringa, Ruvuma, Rukwa, Morogoro who get reliable rainfall for agriculture the GDP of these Municipals is highly three times compared to Dodoma municipality, poor economic situation has lead to series of problems.
(ii) Sampling methods and size
The sampling was random but based on sex, the equal number of female and male, and age (10-15), (16-20), (21-25), (26-30) above 30. All the targeted community members (the focus group) has equal chances to be selected as sample, regardless their education or positions the selection was randomly to avoid business.
Cluster sampling, Sample size was 74 people who were given 74 questionnaires developed and distributed randomly to the focus group, 44 of respondent were female while 30 were male. Due to small sized sample the analysis of data required the statistical references. Other people involved were the community leaders
Main areas of questions
The structured questionnaires were developed by a researcher and distributed to the economists, local government leaders, NGOs leaders, community representatives including business men, (Both women and me) The questionnaires were flexible enough which provided both open questions and closed questions, to provide an opportunity of explanation
2nd Section of questionnaires
A set of 10 questions on economic assessment, the questions geared to acquire the information about the economic activities, the agriculture, business activities analysis, local economy and entrepreneurship, IGAs, self employment, unemployment, private investors, job opportunities, Availability of local available resources. Other information was collected from the records from Dodoma Municipal Council.
(v) ECONOMIC FINDINGS/RESULT
(a) ECONOMIC STRESS
Poverty , Poor income from small business, The majority of people such as young people and women lack access to loan provided by micro and macro financial institution because they don’t meet the their criteria.
Unemployment 65% of respondents of the structured questionnaires has no jobs, while 34% were employed and 32% were self employed. Most of them are women and young women and men.
Lack of Market for their products, the development groups formed by the community groups such as youth carpentry group, tailoring mats, face problem of market due the free market influence, women are more disadvantaged because they can not travel to a long distance due to their reproductive rile and family care takers.
Stigma and discrimination due to HIV/AIDS .People living with HIV/AIDS are not involved in community groups due to high stigma and discrimination, they don’t have access to loans for come generating Activities (IGA)
Lack of skills and technology: the free market system have spoiled the micro business of many women who are doing the home business, the giants such as Azam –ice cream.
(b) SOURCE OF STRESS
Unemployment 65% of respondents of the structured questionnaires has no jobs, while 34% were employed and 38% were self employed. This has been the source of poverty especially to marginalize people such as women and youth aged 18-35.
Deforestation and removal of soil cover. The weather have been affected due to tree cutting which practiced by the city and rural dwellers for firewood and charcoal as sources of the domestic energy in the city. The collected data indicate high consumption rate. The high consumption rate has lead to the destruction of the ecosystem, forest depletion and serious environmental degradation. .
Unreliable rainfall, The economy of the Municipal is minimum because of poor technological capacities, and sandy soils there is small-scale productivity resulting from low and erratic rainfall, high evaporation, transpiration and low moisture holding capacity.
Inadequate Input Support: Only a few progressive farmers have access to fertilizer, pesticides and improved seeds. The majority of the population lack credit facility and cannot afford to purchase agriculture inputs required to boot agriculture production. Irrigation is not feasible in Dodoma Region.
(c) ECONOMIC ASSETS
Attractive city of investors, the city is very attractive to private investors, business men attracted to do business in Dodoma town. These are modern World class facilities, which have added value to the appearance of the include The Parliament Building, The New Dodoma University, St. John’s University, Hotels and other office buildings, Night clubs.
Electricity and other economic infrastructure, Electricity is available, good roads;, airport which can accommodate a medium jet aircraft and government planes. Communication facilities include; telephone lines, faxes and e-mails.
Dodoma is well served by inter-regional transport links with trunk roads passing East-West (East to Dar-es-Salaam and West to Mwanza.
Livestock production and agriculture The urban and rural community is almost entirely dependent on livestock and food and cash crop business and agriculture, which are locally practiced largely at household level. The main crops grown include sorghum, millet, cassava and maize. The major crops are; groundnuts, sunflowers, and grapes. Livestock is the second contributor to the regional economy. Livestock includes; cattle, goats, sheep, poultry and piggery farming for commercial purposes which are mainly confined to urban and trading centers. Besides, local chickens are bound in the region which leads to high demand in the Dar es Salaam market.
The Dodoma regional GPA was Tshs 262.955 billion (2003) which is about 3.5% annual contribution to the national GDP, ranking 12th region in the Tanzanian mainland, from the 14th position in 1991 when the regional GDP was Tshs 34.4 billion. The average annual per capital at current prices is estimated at Tshs 154, 722 (2001) - in the absence of traditional cash crops. The annual income deprived from the proceeds which were traditionally used to be categorized as food crops- Annual husbandry is the 2nd dominant economic activity in the region. It precedes from livestock products which are estimated to account for 35% of the annual regional GDP. The regional ranks 3rd in the country are in terms of livestock number. Overgrazing contributed a lot to soil erosion due to the removal of soil cover which leads ant- leaching (the removal of top soil during the rainy seasons).
(d) DATA ANALYSIS AND TECHNIQUES USED
Data collected was mainly quantitative data on kind of numerical, simple analysis was made where by the high numbers /rates of respondents determined the majority opinion, and hence provided the generalization for the community, for example, unemployment issue was generalized as the most economical issue in the community.
The information collected were organized and processed through SPSS analysis. The data was presented by tabulation and charts as follows
The economy of the community mainly depend on the income through small business they do in daily bases, from the table 74.3% of the respondents were earning between 1,000 – 1500 Tshs daily who the majority. The need of the community was the entrepreneurship skills trainings, need of loans for capital , generally the standard of living of the target community very low in such a way the family cannot suffice their basic requirements such as food, water, electricity and medication or treatment. The situation is the worse to the youths, women, PLWHAs
The table reveals that about 61.4% of the respondent who were youth engage in small business, such as selling vegetables and fruits at market place or they move around in houses to sell their goods, others they sell home equipments, clothes. other youth and women 35.7% conduct vocational activities such as tailoring mates, carpentry, pot molding, weaving and embroidering, netting e.t.c this kinds of business requires small capital and mainly the move around with goods such as clothes, home equipments, books, office equipments e.t.c 2.9% of people interviewed were Youth of Mambo Poa theater art group, who joined the group as source employment, they perform in public meetings and community event to earn money for survival. This business has many challenges especially in acquiring loans and place for work, it is government and development partners to created good environment and working condition for youth to engage in this business and to upgrade their work, there is a need for initiating SACCOS and promotion from financial services for soft loans.
Youth engage in small business and vocational activities
Ushindi bicycle youth group, at Majengo street Dodoma Municipal
Mshikamano Carpentry Majengo Street in Dodoma municipal
Reveals that 70% of the youth engage small business, and casual labor which they earn less than 1000 Tshs per day are between the ages of 21-30 years, this is the age where most youth are active and they tend to practice things and when they left idle for sometime without work they can engage in bad social behavior such as commercial sex, drug abuse and other immoral behaviors. . However this group of youth can be used in more productive way through initiation of income generating projects. 5 Youth Economic Groups (YEG) formed by Mambo Poa are very helpful to Youth for mutual support and income, which the researcher intend to mobilize formation of 5 more YEG
Youth who work in various projects for their daily needs 56.7% they earn less than 1000 Tshs per day while 36.6% of the respondents’ youth earn less than 2000 Tshs a day the rest 6.8 % earn more than 2000 Tshs. The low income associated with lack of entrepreneurship skills and low capital for small business. The need could be addressed through entrepreneurship training with knowledge of marketing and savings as well as linking youth to available community financial institution such as SACCOS
The above table revealed that 94% of the respondents who represents the community are not employed in formal sectors, are self employed, do their own small business and casual labor. Most of youth fail to perform this kind of business due to lack of capitals and business skills and hence remain ideal in the streets, or engage in immoral behaviors such as drugs abuse, commercial sex, alcoholism, and other became robbers or thieves. In a positive way the contents of training manuals for entrepreneurship skills does not consider the needs of youth inclusion with the youths infected and affected with HIV and AIDS. The nature of activity commonly performed by youth determine what kind or contents of entrepreneurship training manual should developed in this project
The above table explored the alternative opportunities which youth can engage themselves to increase the daily income after the entrepreneurship trainings, the 40% of respondents would like to engage in small business, 33.8 would like to join the agriculture sector, 25.7% would like to join handcrafts including weaving, pots molding, neating, embroidering, tailoring etc.
The data collected were reliable; consistently collected using questionnaires and structured questions. Check list and recording were means of verification of data reliability.
All data collected and findings were valid because were collected by myself a researcher for processing and analysis, using the SPSS program
1.2.3 ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT
(a). Why environmental assessment
The environmental assessment was conducted to gather the environmental information for the research project in order understanding which the intervention can be made. The environment as part of ecosystem has been depleted by human kind in such a way that it has been a threat to him. The destroyed environment affects the economy, health lives of creatures. So assessment objectives were collect information and underlying Environment stress, its causes and understand the capacities of community members from listening their proposed solutions.
(b) Research Design.
The Participatory research design was adopted to collect mainly qualitative data and some quantitative data, primary and secondary data which mainly provided the overview of the environment conservation, depletion, pollution, sewage system, human settlement, plan or unplanned e.t.c to find all the information, several research methods, and tools were used. The researcher visited 5 hamlets assessing the sewage, cleanliness of the surroundings, housing, water sanitation systems, the vulnerable and marginalized people to develop partnership with the community who knew their available resources and the modern and indigenous knowledge to improve their environment.
(c) Research methods and tools
Participatory Research methods such as PRA, PLA were used in urban, the components such as a Resource mapping an transect walk were useful in environmental assessment.
Resource mapping The map was drawn on the flip chart to depicture the community environment in addition to local available resources within the community. The representatives of the community were assigned to show on map the trees, bare land, water points and sources, sports and other recreation area, socio-economic infrastructure, including roads, clinics, and schools. During the discussion of the pointed the polluted parts, the areas of wastes disposal and the deforested parts which need to be addressed as the environmental stress and hence came up with assets/ local available resources which were used to solve some stress and constraints.
Transect walk The exercise in which the researcher together with the community members made a general visit of the community area to learn and understand the physical environment and infrastructure of the area and through dialogue the community members were are able to identify the constraints and opportunities within the environment. The transect walk go with the observation as well as the check list tools
Other techniques used were Focus Group Discussion (FGD), observation and record review (Secondary data) and Questionnaires and face to face interview
(vi) Sampling methods and sample size
The sampling was randomly but based on sex, female and male. All the targeted community members (the focus group) has equal chance to be selected as sample, regardless their education, positions the selection was randomly to avoid biasness. Other local Government leaders were involved in focus group discussion.
Stratified Sampling The strata based on age and sex,, and age (10-15), (16-20), (21-25), (26-30) above 30.The method was applied in order to obtain data from different areas of community, representative of youth between 15-25, 10 representatives of women, 10 representatives of men, 20 While the representatives of community groups 10 People Living with HIV/AIDS, 10 NGOs leaders found within Municipality and 14 Mambo Poa youths. Total of 74 people were involved in this participatory assessment.
Sample size Total of 74 questionnaires were developed and distributed randomly to the focus group, 25 of respondent were female while 25 were male. 24 Youths. Due to small sized sample the analysis of data required the statistical references.
Tools / techniques used
Focus Group Discussion (FGD),
Questionnaire (set of questions developed to collect targeted information). This tool was developed in a search way that all the environmental information for this study .also was for documentation purpose as the base-line survey. So the criterion of selection of the respondents was set in order to obtain comprehensive ideas the composition of respondents was considered, mainly were the community members, youths, women, men, environmental professionals and local government community leaders.
The structured questionnaires with open and closed were used to collect quantitative data from survey groups for SPSS Analysis.
The method was used to assess the environmental set-up and Observation of the general environments on natural resources, human settlements and sewage systems, the excise enriched this report assessment and fostered the decisions for further study. All the observed information were recorded and discussed again in focus group for in depth in-sight.
Focus Group Discussion (FGD)
The method was applied to collect qualitative data in order to exhaust in depth the community concerns, The check list was used to guide discussion in order to collect intended answers. The focus group discussion was essentially used to support questionnaires and to get more clarification on issues which were stated in the questionnaires. The focus group discussion was aimed to conduct as sort of confirmatory and rationalization of other assessment methods used in order to get more insights.
Main area of Questions
Other 10 questionnaires Comprises the information on Environmental assessment, were distributed to the random selected people, whereby the respondents were required to provide information on the physical environment, sewage system, local natural resources, local ecosystems, soil fertility, pollution, conservation and preservation of natural resources, the aid of community natural resource for recreational and business in the community.
(v) ENVIRONMENTAL FINDING/ RESULTS
(a) ENVIRONMENTAL STRESS
Un-clean environment and poor sewage system
Through observation and general comments from the questionnaires shows that the community environment is un-clean, poor sewage system, there are no any by-laws protecting the environment in case of throwing the rubbish including the plastic bags. Municipality council has employed people who clean the streets but are not enough also there are there poor wastes handling.
Depletion of the environment Due to increased housing and human settlement, there is increased soil erosion due to removal of top soil for building mud bricks houses. Overgrazing and deforestation practices
Over-crowding in houses Low quality and inadequate housing with 3-4 families average of 15-20 people living in one house sharing a single toilet and bathroom, Lead to poor hygiene and general cleanliness which is so dangerous in case of outbreak diseases such as cholera.
Rural-Urban mitigation The municipality is overcrowded of population of youths seeking for employment, the issue of rural and urban mitigation is crucial. Multitudes of youth were seen around Jamhuri stadium jobless and waiting for labor works. This exposed youth to engage themselves in drugs abuse, and other crime business. Other youth search for employment opportunities, and other better social services, such as health services, entertainment facilities, small business, recreation and sports
(b) SOURCE OF ENVIRONMENTAL STRESS
Un-planned settlement. The City Development Authority (CDA) was slow to allocate plots for low income earners, as the result the houses were unplanned build. As a result there is inadequate or poor sewage system especially in Chan’gombe and Maili-mbili.
Deforestation and overgrazing
Has facilitated the depletion of the environment in Dodoma Municipality, also the cutting down trees and use of land (excavation of soil and sand) for house building has contributed in environmental depletion.
No by-laws for rubbish disposal No serious step has been taken against people who spoil the environment, people who discud the rubbish including plastic bags, residuals from houses and industries or factories.
Poverty; low –income, Poor houses and inadequate houses is the outcome of low salaries, low income or poverty, this has lead to overcrowded houses.
Unemployment; High youth rural- urban mitigation is due to unemployment in all sectors. Dodoma Youth could not base in agriculture due to unreliable rainfall, and the there is no any substitution such as irrigation system
(c) ENVIRONMENTAL ASSETS
Improved infrastructures There is Modernization of Dodoma town to cope with standard of cities, the Government through the Capital City Authority (CDA) is repairing the tarmac roads, the sewage systems and restructuring the settlements
Water and sanitation Sectors In Dodoma Municipality is well improved to serve the whole population, the Municipality served with clean and safe water, the services has risen from 1,199,390 (72.05) to 1,270,353 (75.3) in 2007 compared from 2002. The Government with collaboration with other donors has embarked on an intensive programme of rehabilitating.
Forest and land Dodoma Municipality is surrounded with forest and have fertile loamy soil, which is useful to produce both cash crops and food crops. The main crops grown include sorghum, millet, cassava and maize. The major crops are; groundnuts, sunflowers, and grapes. The forest can be used for bee keeping projects.
(vi) DATA ANALYSIS AND TECHNIQUES USED
The data analysis was conducted using SPSS and presented by spreadsheet, tabulation. And charts
The table above show that only 21.5% of respondents have sewage system in their household, while 78.4% of them have no sewage system in their area. This reveled that most of the areas within Municipal have no sewage system, the situation which lead to collection of water on road or on road sides during the rain season, Unplanned settlement such as Mailimbili and Chango’mbe the situation is worse , high density, pit toilets, no sewage systems which usually lead to breakdown disease such as cholera.
The table above show that 43.2% of the respondents agreed that there is inadequate natural resources for the next generation due to deforestation habit whereby most of people cut down trees for charcoal making and firewood as source of fuel for domestic use, removal of top soil, people use sand for building purpose, The situation is becoming worse so there is need for a community to look alternatives to cater the fuel need and building materials to avoid depletion of natural resources for next generation.
(vii) REALIBILITY Sometimes the data were collected repeatedly to obtain details in depth, structured questions and checklist were used to guide the collection of the information, reliability was assured by consistence and logical means of data collection.
Assured validity of data collected due to primary data collected direct from the field with a researcher herself and analyzed using SPSS
1.2.4 HEALTH ASSESSMENT
(a) Why health assessment
Health assessment was conducted to collect the health information of a particular community, used to explore issues affects the community members and provides to share their views on how to improve or solve their problems. Several issues were assessed including the number of facilities found in the Dodoma Municipality which operates under the District Council, the number of heath services provided, number and ratio of Doctors, health workers and patients the availability of transportation to Hospital for referral cases, cost sharing issues and medicine provided, and the major health problem in the area such as malaria, HIV/AIDS, T.B etc.
(i) Research Design
This was the center of interest of the researcher where by full participation was crucial to gain collect tangible information for analysis. The Participatory research design was adopted to collect information/ from various community groups. Both Quantitative and qualitative, primary and secondary data were collected and organized for analysis the main methods used was the literature review to collect secondary data from the Government hospital, dispensaries and the Voluntary and Testing centers (VCT). While the main tools used were observation and focus group discussion involved the Government leaders, Orphans and Vulnerable children, (OVC), People Living with HIV/AIDS, Dodoma AIDS Prevention & Control Association (DAPACA), NGO Leaders and Dodoma Cluster. Mambo Poa youth between 15-25 years old
Tools / technique
The interview methods was used to get information from individuals, set of check list was developed to guide question and answers, the confidentiality also was considered to secure the respondents in case of HIV/ADS and family issues. There were set of open-ended questions administered by the interviewer which allowed the conversation and dialogue between the interviewer and interviewee. The questions were asked in logical and sequence manner, while all answers were recorded as the source of information. The advantage of this methods was that favored the vulnerable and marginalized people are most of them are illiterate and could not fill the questionnaires. The PLWAS with symptoms of AIDS couldn’t speak in public in a community meeting their views.
Observation Both simple and controlled observations were used to gather the information; the technique is the classic method of science enquiry. It is the deliberate study through the eye; It was a useful method for the data collected directly from the intended environment
The focus group discussion, there was highly participation of the community members where most of data were collected and the researcher obtains in-depth information on various Health concepts, perceptions together with group ideas. The method involved. During HIV/AIDS there was more than a question-answer interaction where group members had a broader discussion of the topic among themselves. The interviewer kept the discussion on track by asking series of open- ended questions to stimulate discussion. Through this method many information was gained.
Library review, secondary data were obtained from the text books e.g. the over view of HIV/AIDS epidemic in Tanzania, and Dodoma, the cause and effect of AIDS. Statistics and other literature review. The CBO kept records of their activities, which was also useful.
The PRA tools were used during the community meeting, the Community meeting was conducted and some Participatory Tools were adopted on priotizing the aspects i.e. Resource mapping, Visioning matrix and Pair wise ranking.
Transect walk/ Field visit, was made to the health centers and Hospital, orphans and PLWHAS families supported by the CBO.
Sampling procedures used method used focused on extrapolating findings from smaller studied units to larger ones, and so enabled generalizations. The sampling was simple randomly but based on sex, the equal number of female and male, and age (10-15), (16-20), (21-25), (26-30) above 30. Health consumers were involved including community members representatives, People Living with HIV/AIDS. Doctors and nurses and other care givers, Voluntary Counseling and Testing (VCT) center staff and CMSR, CBO staff.
Sample size; Total of 74 people was involved to provide health information, answering questionnaires and priotize the most community need. 45 female and 30 males, while among them 40 were youth and 10 HIV infected people,
(iv) Main Question Areas
Questionnaire. The set of questions was developed and distributed to respondent target group for collecting information , out of 75 paper distributed , 74 papers were collected for analysis.
The section comprised a set of other 10 questions, which guided the respondents to provide information on health assessment, availability of health facilities and services, HIV/AIDS intervention, access to the health services (Closeness for referrals), affordable services in case of cost sharing, equivalency in terms of doctor/ patient ratio. The health service providers (government or religious organization) and the overall community health situation
(v) HEALTH ASSESSMENT FINDINGS/ RESULTS
(a) HEALTH STRESSS
Communicable or infection diseases, Disease such as Malaria, T.B, typhoid, STIs, and other out-break diseases such as cholera, meningitis affects large number of people in the community due to the condunsive environment for the spread of dieses, poor water sanitation, sewage system, overcrowding in houses, lack of primary health education.
Mother and child mortality rate, There is still high mortality rate of mother and children due to hardship of life, cost sharing , direct or indirect due to corruption is still the limitation to mothers and children,
Insufficiency medical doctors and other health workers as per ratio of 1: 1000 patients in urban is one of the stress, regardless of short distance to the Hospitals but the health services still inadequate due to small numbers of medical personnel
HIV/AIDS epidemic, About 50% of patients admitted in the hospital are suffering from HIV/AIDS related diseases, HIV affects people of different age and mostly the Youths who are the man power for productivities.
Sigma and discrimination, the HIV/AIDS threat has lead to high stigma and discrimination from the family level to the community, PLWHAs are inferior to interact with other members in the community due to stigma.
Insufficient Health facilities and limited number of health services, medication and other Hospital supplies. As the number of population increases the stagnant number of health facilities will not cater for the present and future health services.
(b) SOURSES OF SRESSS
Poverty or low income. Most of the poor people can not afford cost sharing in the hospital, people have shifted back to use traditional medicine due to lack of fund,
Unemployment; People do not afford to buy medication from private health because they don’t have money, this affect mostly women, children and youth who most of them they miss job opportunities due to home commitments, lack of skills and are dependants to their husbands and parent respectively.
Lack of staff retention (Medical personnel.) The whole system of training and recruiting and retention of medical personnel is poor, no or very minimal incentives are provided to this unique group the same as teachers in all levels.
Poor planning of Human settlement , The dirty environment facilitate the spread of communicable diseases such as diahorrea, typhoid, cholera, malaria,
Ignorance Lack of education, people fail to follow the simple health rules such as use of toilets, drinking safe /boiled water, balanced diet, wearing shows e.tc
(c) HEALTH ASSETS
Apart from public initiatives, the private sector has also played its role in the provision of health services, in order to improve the well being of the people with focus on the most at risk and to ensure that the health services are more responsive in the needs of the entire population of the District
Health Community Based facilities: Various Non Governmental Organizations (NGO) and Community Based Organizations (CBO) operating in the municipality in collaboration with the District authority
Hospitals: Dodoma municipality has 1 Regional hospital with total of 200 beds. There are total of 15 health centers dispensaries. Including the private health facilities has expanded the health services and care.
Health services provided. General the health services provided including the out and inpatient services, surgery or operations, Maternal and Child Care, ARVs distribution, Home based Care. Voluntary Counseling and Testing and Laboratory services
Cooperation among the health facilities. The Government and Private Health facilities work in cooperation in case of referrals to the Regional Hospitals, all the staff are trained and in-service training is provided regularly
Community Primary Health Programs. Out reach program, The Hospital and Health centers have outreach programs such as Home based Care, MCH Services and
Care Treatment and Care service offered to PLWH, and total of 3 VCT centers within Dodoma Municipality. The common symptoms of the opportunistic disease face them are malaria , tuberculosis , worms, diarrhorrea , Kaposi’s Sarcoma, wasting(Loss of weight), cough, Harpers Zoster, Confusion, Multiple Abscess, stress, poor hair distribution and ill looking
Well equipped and modern Laboratory
Aid in general infections diagnosed in the Dodoma Hospitals and health centers and Makole Municipal Health center. The common health problems affect people in Dodoma Municipality. (The general infections diagnosed in the Dodoma Hospitals and health centers) include Malaria, Tuberculosis, HIV/AIDS, Typhoid, diarrhorrea, schistosomiasis, pneumonia, and skin diseases
(iii) DATA ANALYSIS AND TECHNIQUES USED
The table above shows that the community has different types of health facilities from dispensary to hospital level. The health facilities offer various services including ant- AIDS programs, malaria, in and out patients’ services, MCH services e.t.c
The table above shows that the community receives different health services which are provided by both private sectors including the religions and Government. The cost sharing is still an issue to Municipal people due to the fact that the poor can not afford to pay for treatment and medication. Inadequate medicine in the Government Health facilities has lead to increase in number of deaths of the poor especially women and children.
The number of Doctors and nurses does not coupe with the increase of population of Dodoma municipal,
The above tables show that 16.9% of the respondents were HIV positive while 47.3% were negative and the last group of 33.8% was not yet tested. The HIV infected percent is higher compared to the national statistics because the project involved 10% of PLWHAs as one among the beneficiaries of this project.
The data collected reliability was assured through consistence of questions design to collect data , check list used to guide questions and answers, repeation of collecting information was applied to ensure the reliability of information gathered.
The validity of data collected was assured because I a researcher I collected direct from the field, e.g. interviewing the PLWHAs, infected and affected.
1.3 PARTICIPATORY ASSESSMENT CONCLUSION
The are so many community stresses explored during the Community Need Assessment, The community members should use the available resources (assets) to solve many of the identified stresses, the CED project to continue its tasks/objectives to prevent the HIV/AIDS by building demand for and of availability of quality services. The team should lay the groundwork for expansion of YEG to raise their daily income, To encourage the initiatives of Mambo Poa Youth resource center through their Theater Art group “Nyuki” to involve many youth in rural and urban areas to join youth groups and benefit from the existing programs offered by the Government and other Civil societies.. To create capacity of Mambo Poa youth economic groups e.g. use of Forest for bee keeping, handling of wastes, use of rivers for irrigation system should be solution for the community, health, environment and economic problems. Also there are government initiatives of resolving some of the problems such as poor housing; the CDA is restructuring the city, for sewage system and other infrastructure.
Community participation can play a good role in solving the community problems as a progression toward poverty reduction. Therefore people should be motivated and encouraged to participate in development/ economical activities. HIV/AIDS and other crosscutting issues should be addressed in all levels.
Therefore in order to achieve this CED project involved the community members from the assessment, planning, implementation and monitoring and evaluation. All the research designs and research methods and tools adopted were fully participatory.
2.0 PROJECT’S PROBLEM IDENTIFICATION
Project’s problem identification is the essential part of a project life cycle which defines the specific areas of targeted change. Among several problems explored during the Community Need Assessment (CAN)
(a) The most need of community- employment
The committee member, ranked the most common and current needs, and they came with one problem. Through visioning matrix the committee screened the need to five, and then they used pair-wise ranking to come-up with one common felt need.
Planning committee 15 members
Pair wise ranking done by 15 committee members of Dodoma Municipality
The most need of community was employment in all age groups, the needs related to this need are lack of capitals for IGAs, self employment skills, access to loans e.t.c About 120 municipal youth has organized themselves as AIDS club, with theater art group called “Nyuki” who do road shows with host CBO (CMSR) and Mambo Poa youth resource Center. Making use of that, this study was conducted to support of Mambo Youth infected and affected with HIV/AIDS who developed their projects that encourage conscious living positively with HIV/AIDS and the community members.
“Nyuki “ Mambo Poa youth Theater art ngoma group
The planning group which involved the CBO staff, the youth leaders, and other stakeholders came-up with employment as the mostly current need to be addressed. On the other hand the HIV/AIDS epidemic was highlighted as the potential which creates massive social and economic problems such as unemployment, streaming from losses of productivity, diversion of development funds to crisis health care. The problem at large affects people of different age, sex, education levels and social classes.
The young people are vulnerable to HIV infections especially young women aged 15-24 due to biological factor and socio-economical pressures which has forced the young people to engage in highly risk behaviors. The young women migrate from rural to urban to seek for job and unfortunately found themselves involving in other business such as prostitution. While the young men engage in drug abuse and alcohol due to lack of employment and hence has exposed them to contact the HIV/AIDS and other drug related diseases including mental disturbances. Most of drug abusers are young people between 12-25 years. The problem affects more young people particularly those who are out of school and unemployed. The consequences of unemployment have affected the most disadvantaged groups such as youth living with HIV/AIDS due to high stigma and discrimination. Therefore there is reversible relationship between the spread of HIV and unemployment. The planning group realized that the main factor contributed to the spread of HIV among youths is poverty and the problem facilitated by unemployment which is the problem to be addressed.
Why does the problem exist?
Using problem tree analysis youth came up with the following causes of the existing problem; lack of skills of entrepreneurship skills, lack of fees to attend collages due to extreme poverty, lack of education to meet criteria required by financial institutions, lack of knowledge on HIV/AIDS and STIs, stigma and discrimination, youth peer pressure groups, limited services which are friendly to the youth, rape and defilement, low self esteem due to lack of life skills and poor role models from adults or elders, dysfunction family life, lack of dialogue between/young people and their parents.(Problem tree analysis table- Appendix 1)
2.1 PROBLEM STATEMENT ON YOUTH UNEMPLOYMENT
Statistics of youth employment in Tanzania
There is direct and indirect relation between the spread of HIV/AIDS and poverty, lack of employment among Youth has fueled the spread of HIV in both urban and rural areas. The total population in Tanzania is 34 million. 33% of the total population is youth, and 68% of the active labor force is young people. The core problem facing youth in Tanzania is unemployment. This problem is characterized by the lack of job opportunities in urban areas, and underutilization of the majority of the national labor force in the rural.
Youth from primary, secondary and high learning institutions entering the labor force annually is about 700,000 but only 40,000 get employment into formal sector. The incidence of unemployment among the youth is relatively high. The youth constitute 60% of all people who are unemployed. According to labor Force Survey 2001 unemployment rate for the whole country is 12.9%. Almost half of the unemployed live in urban areas. 46.5 percent of active people live in cities are unemployed, unemployment for the other urban areas is 25.5%, and for rural areas is 8.4%.
Unemployment for people aged 18-34 was 8.6 in the rural areas and 41.4 percent in the urban areas. The youth aged between 15 and 34 years are more vulnerable to unemployment. Rural youth grow up in a culture that does not typically support entrepreneurship. They often seek employment by migrating to nearby cities and towns to do entrepreneurship. They often seek employment by migrating to nearby cities and towns. When they could not find jobs in town they engaged in dangerous behaviors such as petty theft, armed robbery, drug abuse and unsafe sex, which cause other social problems like the spread of HIV/AIDS among youth, family crises, mental disease, and death. Unemployment problems affects mostly youth raised from poor families, migrants from villages, youth rose as orphans with no parents and youth with low level of education who are about 80% of all youth.
The causes of unemployment in Tanzania
The number of primary school leavers is still big and has not followed by a corresponding expansion of the secondary education. Very few have been absorbed in secondary schools, although has grown from 10% (2005) to about 24% in 2007 Ministry of Education and Vocational training statistics. At the times youth complete primary or secondary education they do not have adequate skills that they can use to start self employment activities. There are few secondary schools that have business, commercial and technical courses for students but the weakness is that they emphasis on the theoretical courses. Many youth have started self-employment opportunities but lack start up capital. Financial instructions usually have difficult conditions, which are almost impossible to be met by youths.
The formal sector has not been able to absorb the majority of the unemployment youths. Various studies (Bagachwa, 1991, Luvanga, 1994) have shown the potential of the informal sector in creating employment opportunities for youths. The rural areas and the agriculture sector in the particular are currently not attractive to youths. The hand-operated hole has remained the main farm implement for working the soil and has, for a long time now, rendered agriculture a difficult task.
This attitude is slowly changing because Youth information is inadequate in coverage, to both rural and urban areas intensifying the problem of unemployment in urban centers. Inadequate skills on youth work among VEO, WEO and District officials. The transition to the free market system has resulted in the privatization of many public institutions. Since the capacity to make profit depends on low operational costs, employers often hire the minimum number of workers to maximize their profit. Community leaders have a tendency to ignore youth issues, hence make unfriendly environmental which hinder youth development opportunities.
Lack of employment has increased the vulnerability of Youths to HIV/AIDS
There is direct relationship of HIV transmission and unemployment, the most of youths in Tanzania are still dependency to their parents or other relatives, receives insufficiency needs, so the epidemic has spread relentlessly affecting people in all levels and in all walks of life but is disseminating in the most to youths (productive segment of the population). HIV/AIDS affect Tanzania’s youth particularly young adult aged 15-24 comprising only 20% of the population. While the girls are particularly Vulnerable for both biological in an effort to meet their basic daily needs.
The increase in AIDS has reflected through related absenteeism from work and deaths reflect the early manifestation of the epidemic leaving behind suffering and grief. Other manifestation of the epidemic include lower life expectancy, an increased dependency ratio; reduced growth in the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) reduced productivity, increasing Poverty, rising infant and child Mortality, and a growing number of orphans. Deaths, dependence in household level, stigma and discrimination are other challenges resulted from HIV/AIDS. In turn unemployment and the stigma play a major role in fuelling HIV/AIDS.
Current youth employment situation
In Tanzania just like in any other country in the world young men and women are considered greatest and very important asset for the present an future generations. Their strength as their ability to learn and acquire new skills and development, qualifies young men and women vital group of people among other which contribute enormously to the national economy ways. They are therefore a change agent for social and economic development as well as teaching innovations. In efforts of making sure that youth energy is utilized into a constructive work and fulfilling aspirations of this group by empowering them as the active and agent of positive changes of Labor Employment and Youth Development under Youth Department has been implemented several initiatives for youth development.
In Dodoma Municipality the issue of youth employment is also addressed in all levels of Government administration, the local Government authorities especially the Municipal Development department has provided training to the 23 entrepreneurial youth groups and provides them with loans and skills. The Vocational training institutions VETA situated in Dodoma has been accommodating 250 youth annually training carpentry, hotel management, architectures, mechanical engineering, electrical engineering etc .mainly the trainings focus on self employment
Government response on youth empowerment
Tanzania has initiated the establishment of Youth Country Network (YES- Tanzania). The process started by 50 youth related organizations with a support of the South Korean Embassy Tanzania. Through this program over 18,000 people countrywide have been employed by the government from July 2006 (Mushi, M, 2006) .Sources within the President’s Office (Public Services Management) have explain that, most of these employed by the government have been hired by district councils, adding the government does not employ as many people as the local governments.
The ministry of Labor, Employment and Youth Development has identified 509 jobless in Dar es Salaam City, which the government wants them to be converted into economic groups. The Deputy Minister of Labor, Employment and Youth Development, housed some of the jobless corners and camps were engaged in motor vehicle repaired cart pulling and painting.
Possible means to overcome the existing problems is Youth Empowerment.
The possible means of overcoming the problems are; firstly to link youth development with government, local government structures at levels and sectors. Also to strengthen and expand vocational training in public and private training centers with a dual purpose of industrial and self employment without forgetting to link HIV/AIDS campaign with youth community groups and build capacity of youths on how to secure loans from financial institution, private firms and Donors.
Moreover is to start a special fund for the purpose of covering training cost and providing loans for self-employment activities. and emphasize practical appropriated education and counseling in- and out- School with an objective of preparing youth s for self employment activities. Other interventions should include establish of youth information centers starting at village level and to promoting youth programs through media which should involve both youth male and females.
Lastly, the possible mean is to provide seminars and workshop for government leaders so that they can understand how to solve current cross cutting issues-mainstreaming youth issue and to advocate for youth policy review to provide more room of youth employments, increasing quality of support and services delivery on youth related issues. The policy should consider mainstreaming of youth issues in all sectors. Lastly is the strong efforts should be made on dissemination of the revised policy.
2.2 TARGET COMMUNITY
(a) Target community
The project targeted HIV/AIDS infected and affected following the result of CNA conducted at Dodoma Municipality. The study is intending to empower the HIV AIDS infected youth through Advocacy, awareness creation (sensitization) and training on life skills, provide a link with Vocational training to be provided with opportunities to study, Also the study intended to Equip the youth with tailoring skills, carpentry, masonry and to promote theatre performance which will be used in community sensitization in aspects of HIV and AIDS/STI reduction.
Direct beneficiaries were the 34 youth infected with HIV/AIDS (male and female), youth in and out school trained in RHE and life skills, then adult 161 PLWHAs and the community at large. The community members were the second beneficiaries through community sensitization meeting which were educative and innovative. Also, Other HIV/AIDS and development bodies were involved in fund raising and participation throughout the project; these were Municipal Development department Development who organize and support all civil society, CBOs, FBO, and NGOs dealing with Development and HIV/AIDS. Total of 237 Mambo Poa Youths were involved in community sensitization meeting as part of generating Income through road shows and theater art “ngoma” dance to the community.
MAMBO POA PHOTO
The study area (Project scope)
Regardless the high demand of the unemployment issue countrywide, the study concentrated in Dodoma Municipality. Due to the consideration of efficiency, cost effectiveness and quality output which was bared in mind. The verifiable and measurable indicators were used to avoid any deviation from the planed research. Under this circumstance, this research was confined only in Dodoma Municipality.
(b) Stakeholders’ analysis
Various beneficiaries will benefit positively due to the introduction of this project because it will be a model to other communities and district at large. The stake holder’s which will be direct or indirect involved in the CED project are the community member, community leaders, District Development Department Dodoma Municipal, the NGO working with HIV/AIDS, SHIDEPHA+, and The Dodoma Network Association (DAPACA) the HIV/AIDS NGO’s cluster.
The mentioned stakeholders were supportive on CAN and agreed with the Participatory Research Design which was used throughout the project, the community members, and other community groups were the secondary beneficiaries received, public education on HIV/AIDS, and life skills. Free HIV testing was provided by Mambo Poa VCT center after the community sensitization event. The stakeholders suggested the sustainable ways of the project after the CED project, that the CMSR should disseminate the project to youth in rural areas; this was accommodated in the project goal, and the entrepreneurship training manual was be developed and submitted to CMSR for training.
2.3 PROJECT GOALS AND OBJECTIVES
(a) PROJECT GOAL
To have empowered HIV Infected and affected youth to participate in income generating activities (IGAs) so that they can contribute to the development of their families and community
To increase number of Youth Economic Groups engages in income generating activities to sustain their lives, reduce stigma and income poverty
ü Improved skills on youths entrepreneurship and vocational technology for better production
ü Improved self esteem and confidence against stigma and discrimination among youth infected and affected with HIV/AIDS
(b) PROJECT OBJECTIVES
Objectives of the study
· To enhance employment opportunity for 32 youth infected and affected with HIV/AIDS within Dodoma Municipality, by 2009
· 2000 Youth within Dodoma municipality being trained reproductive health Education, to enhance behavioral change against HIV/AIDS infections by year 2009
Specific objective one
To enhance employment opportunities for 32 youth infected and affected with HIV/AIDS within Dodoma Municipality, by 2009
Activities under this objective
· Formation of 5 Youth Economic Groups
· Develop document of Youth entrepreneurship training manual
· Conduct Trainings on Youth Entrepreneurship trainings, Reproductive Health Education, Vocational and life skills
· Conduct Community sensitization and mobilization of local available resources f
· Link Youth to the formal employment opportunities
Expected Output by the end of project
ü Income of 32 youth infected and affected with HIV/AIDS improved from less 1000 to 3000 Tshs per day.
ü 10 copies of entrepreneur training manual developed and distributed
ü 10 targeted youth at least enrolled in vocational training colleges
ü Improved household lives of the infected and affected youths.(Obtain human basic needs)
Specific objective two
By year 2009, total of 2000 Youth within Dodoma municipality being trained on life skills, reproductive health, to enhance behavioral change against HIV/AIDS infections.
Activities under this objective
· Community sensitization meeting on stigma reduction and HIV Prevention using Mambo Poa youth theater road shows
· Training PLWAS on Health and access to CTC services and conduct group counseling and individual counseling
Expected Outputs under this objective
ü Increase awareness and self esteem with confidence to attend VTC and CTC services
ü Improved health against opportunistic diseases and increased number of Youth joins the mutual support groups SHIDEPHA+ and Youth resource Center.
Youth leaders and the community members
5 Existing Youth Economic groups
Theater art group of Mambo Poa to perform road shows in community sensitization
Human resource (Skilled people of CBO , District Development department staff)
Funds for youth under age of 18 for educational and school fees
The Host Organization
The achievement of this study it came from the hosting organization of Mambo Poa Youth Resource Center.. The group stated on 2001, it comprise 123 members, male and female .The main objectives of this group is to sensitize the community on the effect of HIV/AIDS using the theatre group formed among them. Mambo Poa is the youth center of HIV/AIDS and Reproductive Health Education in general. This Center is situated at “Mji Mpya” Street of Dodoma town. The Center is under the facilitation of a Non Governmental organization known as CMSR Tanzania. Before it was specially established by CMSR-Tanzania for youth activities, the centre was for the general Community Center of Dodoma Municipal Concil. From 1999 CMSR Tanzania has taken steps to implement STD and HIV/AIDS prevention and control as well as sexual and reproductive health education activities. Mambo Poa Youth Resource Centre was established in 2001 after the agreement made between CMSR-Tz and Authority of Dodoma Municipal Council, granting authorization to CMSR-Tz to rehabilitate and take over the running of Municipal buildings for Youth activities against HIV/AIDS and STI infections The main objective of Mambo Poa Centre is to reduce youth vulnerability towards contraction of HIV/AIDS/STIs infection in Dodoma region, with the specific objective of Mambo Poa Youth Resources Centre includes; Provide correct information about HIV/AIDS/STIs through seminars, workshops, video shows, printed materials such as: magazines leaflets and posters conduct drama performances and HIV testing (VCT) services. Reduce the number of drugs users among youths. Provide recreational opportunities and promote talents among youth in Dodoma Municipality. Equip youth with life skills and encourage self employment among out of school youths. Encourage students’ commitment in Schooling. Provide a free voluntary counseling and HIV testing (VCT) service unity and treatment of STIs within the center premise.
The Center has future plans to fulfill their goal, is looking for various sponsors and they work in collaboration with government institutions and other development partners.
HIV/AIDS and youth employment
(a) History of HIV/AIDS
The mid-1980 marked the beginning of one of the worst disease epidemics in history. Cases of Human Deficiency Virus (HIV), which causes advanced immunodeficiency virus (AIDS), were starting to crop up in both the United States of America and Africa. (National AIDS Control Program, 2002) Few people imagined how far the disease would spread and the extent of the devastation it would wreak, especially in sub-Saharan Africa, where the number of deaths from AIDS would eventually reach monstrous proportions. ( Mbwambo, J; Kilonzo, G; 2005)
It is important to recognize that the AIDS epidemic in Africa is not localized crisis, that stretches to nearly continent wide and affect almost every African country and African inhabitant. (UNAIDS, 1999) HIV is an RNA retro virus that attacks helper T-cells which are key parts of the immune system and uses the host cells’ on own genetic replication machinery an enzyme reverse transcriptase in order to convert its RNA genome into DNA, creating new infectious virus particles which spread throughout (Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Pictures, 2004). (National guidance to clinical management of HIV and AIDS, 2002)
(b) Epidemiology of HIV and AIDS
HIV and AIDS is a major health problem globally now. In 2005, it was estimated that about 40.3 million people were living with HIV and AIDS worldwide, which about 25.8 were found in Sub-Saharan Africa. (Tanzania Commission for AIDS, 2005). Worldwide 3.1 million persons died from AIDS in 2005; sub-Saharan Africans accounted for 2.4 million of the total (UNAIDS and WHO, 2005). The regional is the world’s most severely affected region; with only 10% of the world’s population it harbors about two thirds of the global total number of people living with HIV and AIDS.
In Tanzania, since 1983 when the first cases of AIDS were reported in Tanzania, the HIV epidemic has spread rapidly to districts and communities affecting all sectors of the society. A total of 18, 929 AIDS cases were reported to the NACP from the 21 regions during the year 2003. The resulted into a cumulative total of 176, 102 reported cases since 1983 when the first 3 cases were identified in the country. (National Multi-Sectoral Strategic Framework on HIV/AIDS, 2003-2007)
In 2003 over 1.8 million persons were estimated living with HIV and AIDS and close to 800,000 cumulative cases. The overall prevalence of HIV infections among blood donors during 2003 was 8.8%. Recent data base on household surveys estimate the seroprevalence in adults in Tanzania to be 7%, with a wide variation across the regions. Most infections are transmitted by sexual intercourse and hence the population most severely affected are the sexually actives individuals between 15 and 49 years of age. Women have a higher risk to become infected then men. (Tanzania Commission for AIDS, 2005). Therefore the discussion of youth development can not separated with HIV/AIDS spread among youths, and hence planning on key issues solvable such as building youth capacity and employment opportunities. In turn Poverty, the low social and economic status of youth and women in many areas can contribute to control the epidemic. (Tanzania HIV/AIDS Indicators Survey, 2003-2004)
(e) Vulnerability of Youths to HIV/AIDS infections
HIV/AIDS affect Tanzania’s youth particularly young adult aged 15-24 comprising only 20% of the population. Girls are particularly Vulnerable for both biological in an effort to meet their basic daily needs, certain cultural and economic practices can increase the risk of transmission, burden to care in AIDS – affected household falls on women and girls (The new look at HIV/AIDS epidemic in Tanzania, 2005) The epidemic has spread relentlessly affecting people in all levels and in all walks of life but is disseminating the most productive segment of the population (NACP surveillance Report, 2004) The increase in AIDS related absenteeism from work and deaths reflects the early manifestation of the epidemic leaving behind suffering and grief.(TSPA, Key finding on HIV/AIDS,2006). Other manifestation of the epidemic include lower life expectancy, an increased dependency ratio; reduced growth in the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) reduced productivity, increasing Poverty, rising infant and child Mortality, and a growing number of orphans. Deaths, dependence in household level, stigma and discrimination are other challenges resulted from HIV/AIDS. In turn the stigma plays a major role in fuelling HIV/AIDS.(ICRW, Stigma Tanzania, Zambia and Ethiopia, 2005) Due to the epidemic impact the most affected are those people living with HIV and AIDS, with remarkable groups of Youth and women because of dependence life to the parents and husbands respectively.(World Bank Global HIV/AIDS program of Action, 2005)
The effect of epidemic to social and economic development
The epidemic is a serious threat to the Country’s social and economic development and has direct and implications on the social services (National guidelines for clinical management of HIV/AIDS, 2005) in the absence of a cure, the devastating impact of the epidemic in incomprehensible. It has been established that poverty significantly influences the spread of HIV/AIDS which ultimately lead to a loss of economically active segments of the society (NACP, 2005)
The HIV/AIDS pandemic is a threat to socio-economic development in Tanzania. An estimated 1.5 Tanzanians are infected with HIV, which progress to AIDS will eventually result in death.(Tanzania Commission for AIDS, 2005) According to 2002 Behavioral Surveillance Survey among Youth, during the year 2001 a total of 14,112 AIDS cases were reported to the National AIDS Control Program (NACP). Most aid cases fall within the age group 20-49 years with the highest number of reported cases in the age group 25-34 and 30-39 for female and males respectively. Youth aged between 15-24 years contributed to 15% of total cases. Regardless of high prevalence of HIV infection there still few ant-AIDS programs target youth, as well as lack of special interventions to Youth infected and affected with HIV and AIDS (UNAIDS, Sex and Youth, Contextual Factor affecting risk for HIV/AIDS, 2000)
Therefore there is direct and indirect relationship between HIV and AIDS and economic development. (Surveillance HIV/AID/STI Report, 2003) HIV and AIDS negatively affect economic growth on one hand and, a weak economy makes it difficult for nations and individuals to mount adequate and comprehensive responses to the epidemic on the other. (NACP report, 2005) the report show that poverty is a powerful co-factor to the spread of HIV and AIDS. The economically and socially disadvantaged, women, youth and other marginalized groups in the society, are disproportionately affected by the epidemic. (USAID/Tanzania Development challenges, 2005)
Unemployment as the core problem among Tanzania Youth.
The core problem facing youth in Tanzania is unemployment. This problem is characterized by the lack of job opportunities in urban areas, and underutilization of the majority of the national labor force in the rural.(Labor Force Survey, 2001) The situation become more worse due to increase of modern technology including use of computers.
Youth from primary, secondary and high learning institutions entering the labor force annually is about 700,000 but only 40,000 get employment into formal sector. The incidence of unemployment among the youth is relatively high. (National Bureau of Statistics, (NBS), 2002) The youth constitute 60% of all people who are unemployed. According to labor Force Survey 2001 unemployment rate for the whole country is 12.9%. Almost half of the unemployed live in urban areas. 46.5 percent of active people live in cities are unemployed, unemployment for the other urban areas is 25.5%, and for rural areas is 8.4%. (Labor Force survey report, 2002)
Unemployment increase Vulnerability to HIV among Youth
Unemployment for people aged 18-34 was 8.6 in the rural areas and 41.4 percent in the urban areas. The youth aged between 15 and 34 years are more vulnerable to unemployment.( Labor Force Survey Report, 2002). Rural youth grow up in a culture that does not typically support entrepreneurship. They often seek employment by migrating to nearby cities and towns to do entrepreneurship. (McMaster, S,A; Bride, E.B, 2007) journals of human behavior in the social environment. They often seek employment by migrating to nearby cities and towns. When they could not find jobs in town they engaged in dangerous behaviors such as petty theft, armed robbery, drug abuse and unsafe sex, which cause other social problems like the spread of HIV/AIDS among youth, family crises, mental disease, and death.( UNAIDS Sex and Youth,2000)
Youth employment current situation
In Tanzania just like in any other country in the world young men and women are considered greatest and very important asset for the present an future generations.(Brickell,C,2002) Their strength as their ability to learn and acquire new skills and development, qualifies young men and women vital group of people among other which contribute enormously to the national economy ways They are therefore a change agent for social and economic development as well as teaching innovations. .(Gender hpp://sachet.orgpt/home/g 5/12/2008 ) In efforts of making sure that youth energy is utilized into a constructive work and fulfilling aspirations of this group by empowering them as the active and agent of positive changes of Labor Employment and Youth Development under Youth Department has been implemented several initiatives for youth development.( labor Force Survey, 2002)
In Dodoma Municipality the issue of youth employment is also addressed in all levels of Government administration, the local Government authorities especially the Municipal Development department has provided training to the 23 entrepreneurial youth groups and provides them with loans and skills. The Vocational training institutions VETA situated in Dodoma has been accommodating 250 youth annually training carpentry, hotel management, architectures, mechanical engineering, electrical engineering etc .mainly the trainings focus on self employment
EMPIRICAL LITERATURE REVIEW
(l) The Government initiatives on Youth and employment
Tanzania has initiated the establishment of Youth Country Network (YES- Tanzania). The process started by 50 youth related organizations with a support of the South Korean Embassy Tanzania. Through this program over 18,000 people countrywide have been employed by the government from July 2006 (Mushi, M, 2006) .Sources within the President’s Office (Public Services Management) have explain that, most of these employed by the government have been hired by district councils, adding the government does not employ as many people as the local governments. The ministry of Labor, Employment and Youth Development has identified 509 jobless in Dar es Salaam City, which the government wants them to be converted into economic groups. The Deputy Minister of Labor, Employment and Youth Development, housed some of the jobless corners and camps were engaged in motor vehicle repaired cart pulling and painting.
The problem of unemployment has been addressed by the Government and other civil societies in all levels, tracing the Government initiatives through ministry of labor and Youth employment, the Youth country Network (YES) and Youth Economical Network has addressed the problem in five main area as discussed below.
Areas of intervention on Education and Training
Skills and knowledge is the engineer of economic growth and social development in a good number of young people lack the necessary education, knowledge and relevant good productive jobs and meeting the challenges of globalization. (National Poverty Eradication Strategy, 1998) Education begins with literacy, in spite that there is improvement through education, there is still some illiteracy gaps. There is need of more vocational training so that young women and young men will the better equipped with advantage of opportunities in the labor market and cope with fast paced changes of a challenge.(VSO,Tanzania Sharing skills report, 2002)
Entrepreneurship and enterprise development
Promoting entrepreneurship can increase youth employment and alleviate the account for and social exclusion. A good number of Tanzanian youth earn money by working for example some start their own business enterprises and work for themselves.(YES, Tanzania Country Network, 2005) They are entrepreneurs. .Entrepreneurs is both owners and employers. Entrepreneurship is the self –employment the informal the sector and formal employment. In the informal sector where are unregistered there are about 1.7 million operate enterprises employing more than 3 million people which for about 20% of the Tanzanian force ( Source – A guide for Young Entrepreneurship ,2004).
There are about 183,000 legal businesses in the food processing sector in Tanzania. There are number of challenges on entrepreneurship development in Tanzania. (http:www.tanzania.go.tz 11/21/2008) There is inadequate skills and business training. Youths who complete formal education schools not have adequate skills that they can use to start self-employment activities.(Program of Action on Youth (WPAY,2000) Students prepared to meet the challenges of the labor market. Young people have less capital skills knowledge experience savings and credit and source of information. Banks and financial institutions regard them as high for them lack of collateral and business experience.
Health empowerment on HIV/AIDS
Tanzania is among countries with high HIV/AIDS prevalence rates in Sub-Saharan Africa about 45%of the infected are the young adult and youths especially those who are sexually active causes of infections among the youths include early sexual practices, early marriages and other sexual practices.(YES( Youth Country Network and YEN (Youth Economic Network, 2005) This makes HIV/AIDS to be only a health problem, but also a social problem with a severe impact or employment promotion and development of our future.(Tanzania HIV/AIDS context surveillance report, 2005) The HIV/AIDS is reducing investment and showing economic growth. Unemployment is exacerbated and there is a consequent increase in dependence on social sector.( Tanzania HIV/AIDS Indicator Survey,2003-2004)
Information and communication technologies (ICT)
The introduction of information in communication technology has both positive and negative impact, wherever the positive impact has been to access the information and empower youth with educational materials. (World Programme of Action on Youth,2000) The negative impact has been the erosion of cultural, values and norms. But the knowledge of utilization of ICT among youth is very low. (YES Network frame work, 2005)The other constraint is that most of ICT areas such as internet are run by the private sectors. This has been very hard to control the use of these services to the youth. The system should value the need of the information to youth and develop public internets centers with limitation of services.
Formation Youth Economic Groups
With the ever increasing rate of unemployment among schools and collage leavers from the higher learning institutions, the ministry started this initiatives, the ministry this initiatives by mobilizing youth allover the form youth economic groups under the program named Youth Economic Group (YEG) Program as the strategy to reduce youth unemployment problem in the country. The most of this program is to assist and provide support to the youth to establish and rule generating activities (Enterprises) to enable youth to be self sufficient in basic needs. (YEN Network framework, 2005)Today more than 3,884 youth economic groups in the country dealing with small enterprises in youth sectors like agriculture, livestock keeping, tailoring fishing, small mining, environmental cleaning and small scale business just to mention a few. (YES network framework, 2005)
ISHI Compain ant- AIDS program funded by USAID
Hand with hand the youth development intervation go together with ant-AIDS program to prevent the epidemic among the Tanzania youth. There is a living example of HIV special program called, “ISHI”,“LIVE” in Kiswahili, was an HIV and AIDS behavior change communication campaign for young men and women in Dar-Es-Salaam that was inspired by the World AIDS Day 2000 theme; men make a difference. The primary intended audience of the campaign in – and – out of school youth ages 15-19. The campaign’s overall objective was to increase the number of youth aged 15-19 who believe that they are a personal risk of contracting HIV/ AIDS. The initial phase is planned for November 2001 to February 2002 with the hope that lessons learned during this period will provide the spring board for a sustained nationwide campaign reaching young people through media and community level activities that appeal to them.
In Tanzania, 56% of boys have had sex by the time they are 19 while 52% of girls aged 15-19 are sexually active. Although levels of awareness about transmission and preventive measures against HIV/ AIDS is high, the majority of youth believe that they are at no risk of HIV infection and continue to practice unsafe sex with only 5.4 % of boys and 6.3% of girls believing they are at personal risk. Among 15-19 old boys, 84 % have never tried a condom. For 15-19 old girls, only 18% report having used a condom.
The key message of the fist phase of the campaign was “wait or use Condom, you can’t tell by looking” ISHI was aimed to facilitate behavioral change among Youth. through role plays. Platform shows, football marches, and the campaign targets youth through a wide variety of mutually reinforcing mass media and community level activities
ISHI evaluation was carried out by the end of 2002, where by both quantitative and qualitative methods of collecting data were used, there is highly increase of awareness among the youth in urban and moderate in rural area. Increased knowledge about HIV transmission and strategies to avoid infection, an increased perception of personal risk and an increase motivation to seek out HIV Voluntary Counseling and Testing.( Ishi Campaign in Tanzania, 2002 report)
ISHI CAMPAIN PHOTO
National Youth Policy review
In 1996 the Youth Development Department issued the National Youth Development policy guided as supper spear for sustainable implementation of youth development issues. The 1996 policy emerged from the fact that it was outdated in terms of statistics as well as youth related issues. The review was there done in order to up date the statistics and add the new emerging youth issues and developments including the ever changing global technology and social – economic changes in relation to youth empowerment. The review was done in year 2004 where 1500 youth and youth stakeholders were involved. .Sustainability of all youth development activities is achieved, effective participation and involvement of all stakeholders in its implementation , identify and state clearly the roles and responsibilities of stakeholders including youth in implementation of this policy as regard to their own development. An increasing quality of support and services delivery on youth related issues. The policy which with global development and challenges and that also considers issues as a policy and mainstreaming of youth issues in all sectors. The policy is the final stages of normal government procedure for approval and ensures task already now is to prepare implementation plan of action that will again involve youths and then follow the dissemination of the revised policy.
The CED project student was concern with the needs of the community, unemployment as a problem cater across the whole entire community ,without leaving high ambitious to the entire community the beneficiaries under this study will be the only disadvantaged and marginalized groups of people i.e. Youth infected and affected with HIV/AIDS in Dodoma Municipality.
This section provides original plan and the actual implementation and reports what will be accomplished by year 2009
The planning table developed below will guide the research to implement the project, the contents are responsible persons for understanding each activity, the resources required, and planned delivery timeline.
This project aims to implement 8 most important activities which will produce tangible results
Formation of 5 new Youth Economic Groups to make total of 10 YEG in Dodoma Municipality.
Develop a training manual model with all contents of youth entrepreneurship skills, which will be tested by the researcher before the end of CED project to Mambo Poa Youth.
Trainings Youth Social entrepreneurs,and mobilize the local available resources to start their income generating activities..
Trainings 2000 Youth on reproductive Health education, self reliance and life skills, and self employments and encouraged to access VCT, CTC services and treatment of STIs
10 Youth infected with HIV/AIDS be enrolled in Vocational training colleges situated in Dodoma to obtain skills for self employment
34 HIV infected youth to be linked to venture leaders, business people and other institutions to develop network of support and employment.
Build the capacity of CBO Mambo Poa staff (Proposal write up, Project management and evaluation, so they may expand their catchments area (Project Scope) from urban to rural.
HIV/AIDS and Youth empowerment
Youths aged 16-24 years are regarded as manpower to the National Economy. Agriculture as the leading sector in Tanzania Economy has been affected by HIV/AIDS pandemic due to increased youth fatality rate, which in turn all decreases the effort of Poverty reduction in our communities.
The youths in and out school were equipped with life skills, reproductive Health education, self reliance skills, and self employments through entrepreneurship training. (Were encouraged to access VCT services and treatment of STIs). Others were encouraged to be committed to schooling and join vocational training center in Dodoma
The study intended to intervene the marginalized group of Youth Living with HIV/AIDS and affected within Dodoma Municipality and affected youth, those who lost their parents through AIDS and hence are vulnerable to HIV. Through awareness creation and reduction of stigma and discrimination, mobilize local available resources for IGA and provide them with vocational, entrepreneurship skills
Socio-economic Youth empowerment project provided the sustainable social and economical interventions which accommodated most of disadvantaged youth, (male and female) by developing a training manual which will be used by the CBO to disseminate the knowledge from urban to rural areas. The rural youth do not have adequate entrepreneurship information as result they become poor and isolated from Global economy.
The training manual model with all contents of youth entrepreneurship skills, marketing, business plans, life skills and social inclusion which was tested before the evaluation of the CED project.
Lastly, the study intended to test the possibility of infected and affected youth to engage in production process and contribute in community development and reduce income poverty among themselves and their families.
The project sustainability was ensured through creation of employment to youth and changing behavior of youth against HIV/AIDS infections and contributes to the efforts of alleviating poverty.
All the implementation and the outcome and impact are summarized in the table below.
17.0. MONITPRING AND EVALUATION PLAN
Monitoring and evaluation of this project will be fully participatory ,Methods to be used include FGD, Participatory Rural appraisal (PRA) tools, Participatory Monitoring Impact,(PIM) developed questionnaires , interview and stakeholders meeting also the check list analysis methods. Using the above listed Participatory Monitoring Methods, will ensure the sustainability of the project i.e. the presented results and findings, recommendations will be accepted by the community to make decision or the community’s to make changes and adjustment in the project. The monitoring Visits and training will be documented as one of the monitoring means.(See the appendix)
Participatory Evaluation will be adopted to provide an opportunity for both researcher and the community members to make decisions about the future. The youths were involved to make the evaluation planning. And they will be part of the evaluation team also the participatory evaluation will involve the Youth infected and affected with HIV/AIDS, Youth leaders, Stakeholders, HIV/AIDS NGO leaders, Focus group and Mao Poa staff. Both results and impact of the project will be evaluated.
How the evaluation will be done The terms of reference of the project will be developed and the questionnaires to guide the interviews and observations, the document will be used by the evaluation team which will be carrying out the evaluation, and thereafter they will analyze the information and present the evaluation results.
The formative evaluation will be conducted at the beginning of the project to collect the basic preliminary information and ongoing intermediate results of trainings, the formative evaluation will provide guidance and recommendations designed to strengthen or improve the project, make it sustainable, or enhance performance and productivity.
Summative evaluation will be conducted at the end of the project to evaluate and assess designed objectively impact, the impact and accomplishment of the project. It will measure the project outcomes that derived directly from the project, this will include process objectives [e.g. training] and speculate about possible indirect benefits, and summative CED outcomes for each goals e.g. number of new job created, youth treated in CTCs , IGAs started,
Therefore the Evaluation should be both summative and formative. To achieve this measurable, verifiable indicators were developed to measure project performance outputs participant impact outcomes. ( see the appendix)
18.0 PROJECT SUSTAINABILITY PLAN
The sustainability of the project is very important part of this project. The project is going to generate four main outputs which will be used as inputs for the whole process of HIV/AIDS youth empowerment in Dodoma Municipality and elsewhere in Tanzania. These outputs are self employment opportunities and hence improved household lives of the infected and affected youths. (Obtain human basic needs), the youth with self esteemed with confidence will enhance HIV prevention and reduction of stigma from the family level. The skilled youth on entrepreneurship and vocational skills disseminate the knowledge to other untrained youths and make use of skills for self employment. On the other hand the targeted youth infected with HIV/AIDS will disseminate knowledge to other fellows joins the mutual support groups SHIDEPHA+ and Youth resource Center.
18.1 Institutional Sustainability
The assurance of sustainability of this project because have positive support from the community members and youths in Dodoma municipality under the CMSR, Mambo Poa Youth resource center which works under the district Council. The main players of this project are district council. The district has a section which deals with all issues related to promotion youth employment. The project will enhance the capacity of CMSR through training, is for sustainability and continuously training youth on entrepreneurship and HIV/AIDS.
During the project the entrepreneurship training manual will be developed during to disseminate the training within the urban to rural areas. The project is expected to establish a networking of CBOs at district level as well as the whole regional to the national level, to act as lobbying and advocacy forum for marginalized youth such as those who are infected and affected with HIV/AIDS.
At national levels, the Ministry of Labor, Employment and Youth Development has been assigned a national role of coordinating informal sector activities in the country. The ministry is advocating for all stakeholders at local and national level to develop localized strategies for dealing with the sector.
18.2 Financial sustainability
Financial sustainability of this project is also crucial as an input for the overall sustainability of the project. The youth income will be increased through the income generating activities. The savings and credit will be utilized by youth for sustainability of their projects. The CBO and district in collaboration with its stakeholders will develop financial support in implementing the activities of the project. After completion of phase one two main outcomes will be generated namely; of CBOs and district Council for networking will be carrying out the project from urban to rural areas, and development of the strategy plan for a long term youth interventions. This strategic plan will be used as a roadmap NGOs dealing with HIV/AIDS in our communities.. The strategy document will specify all financing procedures and strategies which will lead to the implementation of the strategy towards the transformation marginalized youth to participate in community and national economy toward the National Development Goal. The researcher will be right there to ensure this process and provide the technical support while CBOs will have been strengthened to carry out the process.
This project is politically sustainable as there is currently strong political will and commitment of the creating employment opportunities to Youth, as well as copes with the Ministry of Health initiatives on provision of good health to all citizens including people living with HIV/AIDS. This is manifested by government priority in its plans to support and undertake initiatives to support activities related to promotion of the informal and formal sectors to provide employment to Youths. To date various efforts have been made by the Government and Stakeholders to alleviate the problem of unemployment and poverty reduction. These include: increased investments, both foreign and local, in the private sector, promotion of skills training, youth development programme, increased financial services both by the Government and the Private Sector and legislative and policy reforms to create attractive environment for investment and also by having programmes such as MKUKUTA, MKURABITA etc. Special funds like the Entrepreneurial Development Fund, the Youth Fund, the Women Fund, National Empowerment Fund for Entrepreneurs, etc. have been created in this vein.
Unemployment is a huge problem which should be tackled in different angles as it was started in this project problem statement. To execute, the sited activities of the project implementation was developed by the target group in order to focus toward the goal. The agreed frame works guided the project implementation and hence came up with tangible results. The project considered as a pilot project for HIV/AIDS youth interventions, which should be used from the grassroots for the district as well as to the National level. There is a need to improve accessibility of socio – economical services to the PLWHAs. The need of HIV/AIDS education to youth and the community at large is crucial for behavioral change against HIV spread and stigma. On the other hand both informal and formal sectors should give priority the youth employment as one way of the fight against pandemic
The possible means of overcoming the problems are to link youth development with government, local government structures at levels and sectors. Also to strengthen and expand vocational training in public and private training centers with a dual purpose of industrial and self employment without forgetting to link HIV/AIDS campaign with youth community groups and build capacity of youths on how to secure loans from financial institution, private firms and Donors.
Moreover is to start a special fund for the purpose of covering training cost and providing loans for self-employment activities and emphasize practical appropriated education and counseling in and out School with an objective of preparing youth s for self employment activities. Other interventions should include establish of youth information centers starting at village level and to promoting youth programs through media which should involve both youth male and females.
The possible mean is to provide seminars and workshop for government leaders so that they can understand how to solve current cross cutting issues-mainstreaming youth issue and to advocate for youth policy review to provide more room of youth employments, increasing quality of support and services delivery on youth related issues. The policy should consider mainstreaming of youth issues in all sectors. Lastly is the strong efforts should be made on dissemination of the revised policy.
1. CED program, student hand book 2007-2009 pg38-44.
2. Dodoma regional profile http:// www.tanzania.go.tzdodoma//economy.html connection: Health sector, economic profile and social services 9/11/2007.
1.3. Country profile/ HIV/AIDS/USAID/Tanzania, US embassy Tanzania (June 2003) http:// www.usaid.gov//missions/tz 9/11/2007 and National HIV/AIDS policy. Tanzania national website http://www.tanzania.go.tz/hiv-aids .html.
4. DAPACA leaflet- Dodoma. 2003, Promoting better health for the households and communities, Dodoma.
5. HIV/AIDS in Tanzania. National multi-sectoral strategic plan framework on HIV/AID 2003-2007.
6. HIV/ AIDS advocacy and media relations (2006). Training manual for religions leaders. Published by world conference of religions for peace. United Nation plazas, New York, USA.
7. Mhutasari wa mikakati wa UKIMWI wa sekta ya afya 2003-2006 Mpango wa Taifa wa kudhibiti UKIMWI (NACP) December 2004.
8. National AIDS control program (2004) report number 19 (2005) United republic of Tanzania, ministers of health, Tanzania mainland.
9. 2nd National multisectoral AIDS conference in Tanzania, (2002) Arusha connection AIDS crisis in Tanzania responding to the challenges.
10. Prable. E., Piwoc, E.G (2000).A review of the literature and recommendations for nutritional care and support in Sub- Saharan.
11. Support for Analysis and Research in Africa (SARA) Project. Bureau for Africa office for sustainable development and US agency for international development.
12. Tanzania atlas of HIV/AIDS indicators 2003-2004. Tanzania commission for (TAICAIDS) Dar-es-salaam. National bureau of statistics, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. USAID and ORC macro, Calverton, Maryland, USA. (2006).
13. Tanzania HIV/AIDS indicator survey (2005) March (USAIDS) 2003-04. Tanzania Commission for AIDS, National Bureau of Statistics and ORC macro Calverton, Maryland, USA.
14. 2003 Tanzania AIDS indicator survey (THIS).The future is in our hands Tanzania youth reproductive health and HIV data from 2004-2005 demographic and health survey (TDHS) and the 2003.
15. UNAIDS Unity the world against AIDS Tanzania county situation analysis. http:// www.unaids.org//en regions.
16. Information Collection and use throughout the project cycle. (CED material, CD).
17. Rwegoshora M .M , 2002. Social Science Research, Methods and tools., Mkuki and Nyota Publishers.
Above; Young women infected with HIV/AIDS conduct different IGA projects
Counseling sessions is part of joining the infected and affected youth group
Entrepreneurship youth keeping cows
Young women selling chicken
Young women dealing with agriculture